Anti-inflammation and Active Compounds of Four Indigenous Thai Russula Mushrooms
Weerasak Taengphan1, Prapaipat Klungsupya1*, Thanchanok Maungman1, Intrira Pethtubtim1, Kantimanee Pradermwong2, Charinun Jangklang3
1.Expert Center of Innovative Herbal Products, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3, Techno Polis, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand.
2. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.
3. Department of Thai Traditional medicine, Faculty of Science, Bansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat University.
Abstract: Russula mushroom is mostly found in Northeastern part of Thailand. It has been used as foods and for the treatments of various diseases for a long time. However, less information of the anti-inflammatory activity of R. mushroom is revealed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents the anti-inflammatory mediator effect of Russula mushroom extracts including R. alboareolata (Nam-Pang in Thai), R. medullata (Ko-Kab-Yang in Thai), R. virescens (Khai-Domg in Thai) and R. helios (Ko-Reng-Som in Thai) on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The extract was prepared by maceration of dried mushrooms with 95% ethanol. Phytochemical components of extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. It was found that all extracts possessed similar specific chromatographic fingerprints that exhibited peaks which corresponded to oleanolic acid. Results of water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay exhibited IC50 value of R. alboareolata (760.97 ± 28.95 µg/mL), R. medullata (484.44 ± 07.43 µg/mL), R. virescens (907.14 ± 52.37 µg/mL) and R. helios (514.78 ± 14.35 µg/mL) indicating their slight-cytotoxic effect. In inflammatory inhibition, R. alboareolata extract exhibited the highest in nitric oxide inhibition and prostaglandin E2 inhibition on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells at 78.80 ± 6.70 % and 66.62 ± 9.53 %, respectively. Including COX-2 inhibition, this extract showed the highest % COX-2 inhibition at 57.41 ± 2.27. These results suggest that the R. alboareolata extract is potential of anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 without affecting.
Keywords: Anti-inflammation, Russula mushroom, active compound, RAW 264.7.
Pages: 155 – 162 | Full PDF Paper
Problems in Breastmilk Cell Isolation
Sri Lilijanti Widjaja1, Harsono Salimo2, Suradi3, and Indah Yulianto4
1. Student at Doctoral Program of Medical Sciences, Pediatric Department Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia.
2. Pediatric Department Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia.
3. Pulmonology Department Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia.
4.Dermatology and Venereology Department Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia.
Abstract: Background: Breastmilk contains a plethora of bioactive factors, including biochemical and cellular components. Maternal cells in breastmilk comprise a heterogeneous population of epithelial cells, leukocytes, progenitor and stem cells that dynamically respond to maternal and infant needs. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of many types of cells in the human breastmilk cells. Breastmilk cells is susceptible and only appear in small number in the breastmilk. Although cellular analyses have been previously conducted in breastmilk, optimization of the methodology to isolate and process cells from breastmilk is lacking. In this study, we aim to elucidate the problems in breastmilk cell isolation using two culture media. Methods: We isolate human breastmilk cell using two different media, DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and MammocultTM. Human breastmilk was prepared and processed using protocol from previous study and then cultured into two different media. Results: We faced some problems in breastmilk cell isolation process with two media. Breastmilk sample preparation, reagents use, and time of isolation process is major factor which determine cell viability in breastmilk cell culture. Conclusion: Error in breastmilk sample preparation, time consuming isolation process, and breastmilk sample volume may affect the breastmilk cell viability.
Keywords: breastmilk cell, isolation, cell culture.
Pages: 163 – 171 | Full PDF Paper