1. Estimation of Willingness to Pay for Conservation of Nyando Wetlands, Kenya: A Contingent Valuation Approach

    Francis O. Oduor1, Phillip O. Raburu2, Samuel Mwakubo3

    1. School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Economics, University of Kabianga, P.O. Box 2030-20200, Kericho, Kenya. Tel: +254 0720 143 650, Email: francsusy@yahoo.com.
    2. School of Natural Resource Management, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. Tel: +254 0733616912, Email:  praburu2002@yahoo.com.
    3. School of Business and Economics, Pwani University, P.0 box 195-80100, Kilifi, Kenya. Tel: +254 0721346121, Email:  samuelmwakubo@gmail.com.

    Abstract: Wetland resources of Nyando support important economic and ecological activities. However, it is faced with multiple pressures from different anthropogenic activities within the wetlands and upstream. This is bound to intensify as population pressure increases. Using the Contingent Valuation survey method, bidding game, the economic benefits [Willingness To Pay (WTP)] and its determinants, by use of the Tobit model,  to conserve Nyando Wetlands were measured through a purposive sampling technique. The results show that nearly all the local people were aware of the economic benefits from the wetland with about 96% agreeing that the benefits were being degraded.  About 83% were willing to pay to the payment vehicle, Conservation Trust Fund. The aggregated WTP for the wetland conservation was about KES 38 Million (US$ 0.4 Million) per year. Tobit model revealed that sex of household head; age; household size; and education were the determinants of WTP. The study suggests policies towards gender empowerment, family planning and awareness creation to conserve the wetland.

    Keywords: Bidding game, contingent valuation, Tobit model, payment vehicle, Nyando

    Pages: 1 – 16 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Urban Ecology as a Tool for Analysis of the Urban Free Spaces System

    Maria Elisa Marangoni Feghali

    Architect, Urban and Landscape Designer. PhD in Urbanism-PROURB/UFRJ – Adjunct Professor at School of Fine Arts, leader of the Laboratory of Creation and Analysis of Ambiences LabCA – Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pedro Calmon, 550, Cidade Universitaria.


    The systems of free areas refer, within the concepts of Urban Ecology, to the relations of connectivity and complementarily, considering the environment, circulation, urban drainage, leisure, imaginary, memory and social life of urban spaces free of public or private buildings, planned or not. (LEITE, 2011; FORMAN, 1997; AHENDT, 2004; AHERN, 1995; FEGHALI, 2005).

    For environmental and landscape studies, the concept of connectivity includes a set of possibilities regarding the connection of cultural and environmental values and contributes to new possibilities for planning of cities considering the challenges of sustainable urban development. In this work, we present a proposal of analysis of the potentialities of the use of a free urban area located in the Jardim Botânico neighborhood, in the South Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the expanded analysis of the free area system as a part of the neighborhood object of this study.

    The work was organized considering the definition of the area to be studied and the selection of the areas to compose the system of free areas (studied), connectivity analysis and covered area (local, urban, territorial) of the studied areas, survey of use and hierarchy of accessibility between public, private and transitional areas of free spaces, hydrographic, wind and vegetation analysis in the scope of the study and consultation of users regarding the perception of negative and positive aspects of the region, as well as potential future use of intervention in the field. The urban afforestation and the connection of the green corridors, as well as the rainwater management, were considered as relevant issues to compose   guidelines of actions for the area under study.

    The expanded analysis of the system of free areas, covering biophysical, urban and cultural aspects, based on the concepts of Urban Ecology, allowed us to determine the main characteristics to be considered in the intervention project of the studied area.

    Keywords: urban ecology, landscape, system of free areas

    Pages: 17 – 24 | Full PDF Paper