1. Testing of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Biological Control Against Pine Weevil

    Pavlik Martin, Lalik Michal, Noge Michal, Skvarenina Juraj

    Abstract: Coniferous forests in Slovakia as well as in other European countries in recent decades are attacked by various harmful factors. The most important abiotic factor is the wind, which can in a short time destroy large complexes of spruce stands. After processing such calamities frequently create huge areas of afforestation, making very good conditions for pine weevil presence. It is a beetle causing a lot of damage by eating bark of the trunks of young seedlings, thereby causing a weakening or dieback of them. Actual research is focused on study of reactions of the pine weevil adult (Hylobius abietis L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to infection caused by various entomopathogenic fungi species (Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumusorosea). Beauveria bassiana is one of the longest known insect pathogens. The most significant effect in reducing of food intake has fungus Beauveria bassiana. Metarhizium anisopliae had no effect on food intake, and beetles infected with fungus Isaria fumusorosea had even increased food intake. Mortality of pine weevil has increased by fungus Beauveria bassiana, and good efficacy in this regard has also fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Isaria fumusorosea had almost no effect ontheir mortality rate.

    Keywords: Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Hylobius abietis, biological control.

    Pages: 1 – 11 | Full PDF Paper
  2. The Role of CO2 and H2O in the Formation of Gas-Oil Hydrocarbons: Current Performance and Outlook

    Vagif Akhmedov, Arif Ismailzadeh

    Abstract: Scientists still are debating whether oil has a non-biological or a biological origin. The subject of scientific debates between the proponents of abiogenic and biogenic theories reduces to the question about the origin of the carbon, constituting the basis of the formation of gas-oil hydrocarbons. The results of many geological, geochemical and chemical studies indicate an intricate relationship between the mechanisms of the genesis and evolution of all global changes taking place in the interior and exterior domain of our planet. The formation of gas – oil hydrocarbons corresponds to a certain higher stage of evolution of the geochemical cycle of the primary elements of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, which have also played an important role in the emergence of the organic world. Nature selectively created two different mechanisms for activating molecules of water and carbon dioxide. Redox reactions are the basis of both global processes in which electrons are transferred from the donor-H2O to the acceptor-CO2 to form hydrocarbons and carbohydrates, respectively. The global cycle of carbon oxide and water may serve as a unifying thread between the presumed process of gas-oil formation in the deep layers of the Earth and the well-known phenomenon, aerobic photosynthesis, on an outer surface of our planet. This article discusses some of chemical peculiarities of the origin of oil and photosynthesis which are of considerable interest for the elucidation of formation mechanism of gas-oil hydrocarbons. Presumed pathway for the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and water along with endogenic methane predicts that the resources of gas – oil hydrocarbons are practically inexhaustible. Moreover, the prospects for the synthesis of fuels and other valuable organic materials based on CO2 and H2O open the new possibilities for their efficient and environmentally friendly artificial production.

    Keywords: Global changes in nature; CO2 and H2O as the renewable raw materials; Mechanism of catalytic activation of the molecules water and carbon oxide in the Earth’s depths; Mechanism of activation of the molecules water and carbon oxide on the Earth; Artificial energy from CO2 and H2O.

    Pages: 12 – 34 | Full PDF Paper