1. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Karaçomak Dam Lake in Kastamonu

    Anma Mohamed Alkilani EMHEMED1, Mousa Saleh Mousa Gaballah2,3 and Nejdet GÜLTEPE2

    1. Azzaytuna University, Science Faculty, Environmental Science Department, Tarhona, Libya.
    2. Kastamonu University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Genetics and Bioengineering Department,37200, Kastamonu, Turkey.
    3. Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Al-Bayda, Libya.

    Abstract: This study deals with the chemical and microbiological analysis of some samples which have been taken from Karaçomak Lake in Kastamonu. This lake is a staple source of potable water in the city of Kastamonu. In this study drinking water samples, from the four stations sources of Karaçomak Dam Lake in Kastamonu, were analyzed physicochemical and microbiological, to find out their suitability for drinking purposes. All the result of chemical, physical, and bacteriological analysis of water had been compared with World Health Organisation and Turkish Republic Water Regulations Intended for Human Consumption and World Health Organisation Guidelines of the quality of drinking water. Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity, total nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and ammonium were measured, average 4.45±0.75 ºC, 8.84±0.12, 9.90±1.30 mg L-1, 37.50±11.09 mg L-1, 25.63±6.04 mg L-1, 4.69±5.96 FTU, 0.50±0.28 mg L-1, 0.03±0.04 mg L-1, 0.18±0.095 mg L-1 and 0.08±0.06 mg L-1, respectively. Total germ count was found to average 115±124 cfu mL-1. Also Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from water samples of Karaçomak Dam Lake.

    Keywords: Drinking water, Karaçomak Dam Lake in Kastamonu, water quality.

    Pages: 395 – 403 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Studies on Evaluation of the Status of Nutrient Loading as Indication of Eutrophication in Lower River Benue at Makurdi, Nigeria

    Akaahan, T. J. A1., Azua E.T,1 Anaga S.O.2

    1. Department of Biological Sciences University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373 Makuedi Benue state Nigeria.
    2. Department of Environmental Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Agency Abuja Nigeria.

    Abstract: The influence of daily human activities on the water quality of lower River Benue at Makurdi was studied for a period of 24 months at five selected sampling stations. The sampling stations were selected based on the human activities on the River. Water samples were collected at each of the sampling stations and analyzed for nitrate, sulphate and phosphate load level using standard methods for the examination of waters and waste waters.  The results of the nutrient load level across the sampling sites were varied as follows: nitrate 2.20±3.10-3.80±5.20mg/L, sulphate 10.40±9.18- 17.20±15.20mg/L and phosphate 0.90±1.10-1.50±2.10mg/L. The nutrient load level were within the WHO recommended limit.  The result of the study revealed a low level of nutrient load in the lower River Benue and indicate that its waters were not contaminated with respect to nutrients that will facilitate the excessive growth of algal blooms and that will result to eutrophication which is a menace to aquatic environment. The study conclude that during the study period the lower River Benue was not contaminated with respect to the monitored nutrient parameters.

    Keywords: Nutrient load, Nitrate, Sulphate, Phosphate, Lower River Benue.

    Pages: 404 – 415 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Inspection of an Underground Shollar Drinking Water Reservoir and Strengthening of a Design Taking into Account Square Ecology

    T.Aliyev1, N.Mastanzade2, M.Mirzoev2, Kh.Rasulov2, N.Sultanov3

    1. Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction, Baku, Azerbaijan.
    2. Research and Design Intitute of building materials after named S.A.Dadashev, Baku, Azerbaijan.
    3. Azebaijan State Project Institute, Baku, Azerbaijan.

    Abstract: Historic facts of design and construction of the region’s first industrial tank for drinking water are given in article. For strengthening of a design use of carbon fiber tape and laminating superficial fittings on an epoxy basis was offered. Models of the walls strengthened by carbon fiber fittings were tested for tension and a bend. As a result of test linear deformations under loading are also defined necessary mechanical characteristics of composite material – the elasticity module, Poisson’s coefficient, the tension resistance, a support angle of rotation during a bend.  The tests are conducts in the experimental polygon of the Construction materials research institute.

    Keywords: drinking water reservoir, strengthening, carbon plastic, tension.

    Pages: 416 – 427 | Full PDF Paper