Glutathione, Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in Acute and Subacute Exposure of Diazinon-Mediated Renal Oxidative Injury in Rats
Muhammad Dawood Shah1, Urban J.A.D’Souza2 and Mohammad Iqbal1*
1. Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota-Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2. Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota-Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the possible nephrotoxic effects of the diazinon induced oxidative stress in rats following the acute and subacute administration. Oxidative stress markers in renal tissues, as well as serum biochemical parameters, were evaluated using colorimetric spectrophotometric techniques. Our data showed that diazinon administration to rats induced oxidative stress in kidney, as evidenced by increasing of renal lipid peroxidation level which was accompanied by decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of GSH (p<0.05) compared to saline-treated control. The activities of renal ƴ-glutamyl transpeptidase and quinone reductase were increased (p<0.05) compared to saline-treated control. In addition, diazinon treatment augments renal injuries as evident by the increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (p<0.05). Histopathological analysis of renal tissues was in concurrence with the biochemical studies. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation and alteration in activities of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes play roles in diazinon- mediated renal injury and toxicity in rats.
Keywords: Diazinon, GSH, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzymes, Renal dysfunction.
Pages: 135 – 149 | Full PDF Paper
Comparing the Performances of Aqueous Solution of Boric Acid/Borax and Powder Boric Acid/Borax in Corrugated Board Production Process
Aysun Altan, Erdal Akıncı, Meral Arca
Caran Kimya San. Tic. ve Ltd. Şti., 35060, İzmir, Turkey.
Boric acid and sodium borates (borax) are essential constituents of the starch adhesives used in corrugated board systems. They modify the physical and chemical properties of the adhesive and hence provide the operation of the corrugated board production line efficiently. 
Boric acid/borax holds potential risks to human health. In corrugated board, consumer exposure to boric acid/borax is not concerned since the starch adhesive containing boric acid/borax stays between the paper layers of corrugated board and the consumer does not get into contact with it. However, occupational exposure to boric acid/borax is a critical issue and occurs mainly through inhalation. The effects following the inhalation of the dust containing boric acid/borax are considered to be nasal and eye irritation, throat irritation, cough and breathlessness. Exposure to boric acid/borax may have adverse effect on fertility and be harmful for unborn child.  Due to their hazardous effects on human health, the alternatives of boric acid/borax are in search. However, in corrugated board adhesives, there is no alternative technology commercially available for now. 
The preparation of aqueous solution of boric acid/ borax diminishes the health hazards caused by inhalation of powder form of it. However, the water solubility of boric acid/ borax is about 4 % at 20°C which is a very low concentration to be used instead of powder boric acid/ borax in corrugated board production.  In this study, we developed a technique to prepare the aqueous solution of boric acid/borax with 25,7 % of boric acid and borax content. When the aqueous solution of boric acid/borax was used in corrugated board production line instead of powder boric acid/borax, it performed well concerning the quality of starch adhesive and the efficiency of the production line. 
Keywords: borax solution, starch adhesive, corrugated board.
Pages: 150 – 154 | Full PDF Paper