Ornamental Fish Farming and Spatial Distribution in Layang-Layang Kluang District Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing
Eleanor Daniella Lokman, Mohd Nazri bin Puasa, Rosliadi Rahim, Ong See Ling, Siti Hasshura Hashim, Nurul Nassita bt Lias
Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry Malaysia, Wisma Tani, Level 1-6, Blok Menara 4G2, Precinct 4, 62628 Putrajaya.
Abstract: This paper presents a new structure of research in ornamental fish farming among the ornamental fish farmers in malaysia. The potential for further expansion of the industry in malaysia is extensive. however, importing activities are intermittent due to export restrictions made by the european union (eu) from 2015. The objective of this study is to map the 19 ornamental aquaculture farms in layang-layang by creating the compartmentalisation system using geographic information systems (GIS). A total sample population comprised of 19 ornamental fish farmers. Non-spatial data (survey) and spatial data (GIS) were used in the study to capture farm location effect on the farm operational activities especially in fisheries bio-security terms. Descriptive analysis were used to describe the respondent’s socio-economic profile. The relationship between fish farming and the independent variables were cross-tabulated and chi-square analysis was used to test the null hypothesis. The integration of both vector and raster data was used to determine the spatial characteristics on farming activities spatially. The descriptive analysis shows that majority of the farmers were male and married. 34.8% aged 41-50 years old and 41.6% had secondary education level, SPM. majority of the respondents with 7 (36.8%) had a farm scale more than 10ha of farm size. Average total production with 2 millions a year. The goldfish (29%) and tiger barb (8%) are most favorable type of fish reared. A very significant relationship between farming activity and age, education level, total of production and income. The spatial analysis shows that the farmers live less than fifteen (15) kilometres from town to house and farm. The spatial database of the compartmentalized farm is the best solutions for eu requirement that help farm monitoring by fisheries bio-security division.
Keywords: Ornamental Fish, Spatial Analysis, GIS, Fisheries Bio-security, off Farm employment
Pages: 177 – 196 | Full PDF Paper
Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon Aerosol and Its Emission Sources in Bangkok Ambient Air
Department of Agro-industry, Food and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.
Abstract: Black carbon aerosol (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) in the atmosphere is known that formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. BC plays an important role as the solar absorber. It is a short-lived climate forcer (SLCF) which has atmospheric lifetime days to weeks while CO2 is more than 100 years. In addition, black carbon aerosol considers as air pollutant that affects human health and WHO support within its Health and Climate Change campaign “Road to COP21”. Identification the situation and sources of black carbon aerosol in the atmosphere is important for air quality management. The objective of this study is to determine black carbon ambient concentrations in suburban area north of Bangkok and find out its emission sources. This study measured BC concentration continuously 24 hours every 6 days for 4 years from January 2014 to December 2017. A Nano-sampler was used to determine the size distribution and carbon composition of the samples, and meteorological data especially wind direction and rainfall, were conducted on-site. Sampling location was suburban area north of Bangkok at King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. BC concentration was measured by aethalometer. The results showed hourly BC concentrations had average value 1.84±0.21 ug/m3 to 3.72±0.65 ug/m3 with peaks in the morning and evening related to traffic. Seasonal BC concentrations were 1.88±0.68 to 4.78±1.13 ug/m3 during dry season (November to April) which higher than the concentration in the wet season (May to October) at valued of 1.46±0.14 to 2.85±0.95 ug/m3. The highest concentration occurred in January each year, except in 2017 was February, with value of 5.82, 5.27, 4.83 and 3.20 mg/m3, respectively. The results of 72-hour backward trajectories (NOAA Hysplit Model) in the months which had the highest and lowest value of BC concentrations, showed closely correlation of BC concentrations and wind directions. They showed that ambient air in Bangkok was affected not only from traffic in the city but also others activities such as biomass burning from neighboring province; east and northeast of Bangkok. Particle size distribution showed bimodal of particle sizes 0.5-1 mm and 2.5-10 mm. Mean ratio of OC: EC were range of 3.2-4.1 show signature of vehicle exhaust, biomass burning and may be the formation of secondary organic aerosol. In 2017, BC concentration had trend to decrease may be the effective measures of burning prohibiting.
Keywords: Black carbon aerosol; Bangkok ambient air; Elemental carbon; Char-EC; Soot-EC.
Pages: 197 – 210 | Full PDF Paper