1. Hypericum Perforatum Extract inhibits Cigarette Smoke Induced Lung Inflammation

    Halil Mahir Kaplan*1, Figen DORAN2

    1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

    2. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

    Abstract: Hypericum perforatum, is a plant which blooms between july and september at farms, borders of roads and woods, top of hills and grasslands, whose anti-inflammatory effects are shown in various studies. It is shown that cigarette smoke causes increase in inflammation mediators on lung. Due to this reason, we planned a study to examine the protective effects of Hypericum perforatum aganist smoke exposure induced lung damage in mice. For this purpose, mice exposured to smoke during 2 mounth and 70 mg/kg Hypericum perforatum extract per a day and cyclooxygenase-2, cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes in their lungs are analyzed by using ELISA method. Smoke exposure increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cPLA2 and iNOS enzymes. Hypericum perforatum administration to mice that are exposured to smoke previously decreased the rate of increase of the cPLA2, cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS In conclusion, our study shows that the smoke exposre causes inflammation induced lung damage and the use of Hypericum perforatum extract can be helpful against this toxic effect.

    Keywords: Cigarette smoke, Lung, Hypericum perforatum, cyclooxygenase-2, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Pages: 35 – 43 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Antifungal Activity of Some Monoazaphenoxazine Carboxamide Derivatives

    Agbo Stephen1, Anoh Vitalis1 and Swande Peter2

    1. Organic Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

    2. Department of Basic Sciences, Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, Yandev, Nigeria.

    Abstract: The antifungal activity of some monoazaphenoxazine carboxamide derivatives was studied against Absidia corymbifera, Epidermophyton floccosum, Fusarium solani, Trichophyton rubrum, Mucor mucedo and Penicillum specie using sabouraud’s dextrose agar. Compound 2a, 2b, and 2c showed good sensitivity against Absidia corymbifera, Epidermophyton floccosum, Fusarium solani, and Trichophyton rubrum. Compounds 2d and 2e reveal low sensitivity against Mucor mucedo and Penicillum specie. The presence of chloro-and-nitro substituents on the azaphenoxazine carboxamide ring played a significant role towards its antifungal activities.

    Keywords: azaphenoxazine, carboxamide, sensitivity, Fungal, Pathogens.

    Pages: 44 – 50 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Unitary Symmetry of Atoms, Molecules and Codons. Part 2. Theoretical Basis

    Vladimir Komarov

    Department of Chemistry, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia.


    In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory, on understanding of symmetry and associated concepts of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1]. Thus the relative insignificance of electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared with the strong interaction of nucleons in the nucleus enables a model of the nucleus to be examined in the limit of precise symmetry of strong interactions. In such a model, the, protons and neutrons become physically indistinguishable states of a nucleon, while the properties of the nucleus become invariant relative to isotopic transformations.

    It is also possible to speak of the hierarchy of interactions participating In the formation of molecules. The energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the energy of non-valent interactions, can be given as on example of “strong” interaction. Another example relates to the case when the energy of the valence interactions is much higher than the energy of intermolecular bonds in a condensed medium.

    Weak interactions in chemistry are normally taken into account by introducing different perturbations into physical models. These perturbations are generally unmeasured parameters that are basically the adjustable magnitudes.

    However, in the chosen class of molecules an attempt can be made to find the ratios of values of the examined parameter in which the contributions of “weak” interactions are

    compensated .

    The search for such relationships and ratios is the purpose of this work.

    Keywords: group theory, symmetry groups, molecular symmetry group, invariants for molecules.

    Pages: 51 – 54 | Full PDF Paper