1. Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils And Sediments Taken from the Kura-Araks Rivers Systems Using GC/ECD

    Navai A. IBADOV, Famil Y. HUMBATOV and Murad SAMADOV

    Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan NAS, 121 H. Javid aven, AZ1143, Baku, Azerbaijan

    Abstract: The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), due the wide use in agriculture until about 30 years (except the most recent bans by the EU for lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan) and their chemical stability and slow biodegradation became ubiquitous pollutants. Most OCPs are persistent organic pollutants that have long life cycles in the environment and being transported for long distances. The residues of pesticides in soil can be absorbed by plants, entering the food chain, leading to bioaccumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of 14 OCPs (HCH (α, β, γ,δ), aldrin, α-endosulfan, dieldrin, 4,4’-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan,  4,4’-DDD, 4,4’-DDT, endosulfan sulfate, endrin aldehyde) in soils and sediments from Kura-Araks rivers systems of the Azerbaijan. The extraction was performed with using methylene chloride/acetone (1:1), after changing solvent to hexane and cleaning-up by SG, samples were analyzed by GC-ECD and confirmation was carried out by GC/MS.

    Keywords: Gas chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, Kura-Araks rivers, GCECD, GC/MS.

    Pages: 283 – 294 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Combinatorial System of Hormone Mixtures for early Diagnosis of Pathologies – New Medical Technology

    Vladimir Komarov

    Department of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia.


    The main task of medicine: “prevent – detect – eliminate”.

    In order to “prevent” sent a lot of recommendations from “what to eat” to “how to move and with whom”.

    The situation with “detect” is more advanced. Here physicists (Rutherford once said that all sciences are  divided into physics and collecting stamps) unfolded “to their fullest” – they learned to catch everything that the proteins were just “thinking about”.

    As to the “eliminate” the situation is completely bad. “Cut, so as not to grow again” learned. But it is not always possible to “eliminate” pathology with non-invasive drugs. But to “eliminate” there is another big obstacle – this is the obstacle is Time. Late, therefore, lost the organ, and sometimes life.

    And the situation with the physical (according to Rutherford) definition of a man as a patient is quite unpleasant. This definition should include classification characteristics, that is, which features of a living organism can be considered  as essential.

    But the most important (it is extremely rare in biological taxonomy), the classifying characteristics must be mathematically determined.

    It is known that such classifying physiological signs of mammals include blood, lymph and urine.

    In our body, blood plays the role of a “supplier” of substances to all tissues (arterial) and a “garbage conveyor to the garbage-dumping” organs, which collects throughout the body (venous).

    Lymph plays the role of garbage collector from all the secluded corners of our body. The function of lymph is the return of proteins, water, salts, toxins and metabolites from tissues to the blood.

    Urine plays the role of a “liquid container”, through which all soluble in water metabolites are excreted from the body.

    The most important part in all these processes play (activating, delaying, diverting) the complex molecules – hormones.

    It is known [1] that hormones are humoral (blood-borne) regulators of certain processes in various organs and systems: hormone  is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and  behaviour, including sexual orientation [2].

    On the other hand, hormones of all four mediums may be regarded as a mixture.

    The composition of the components of the mixtures is determined primarily by the structure of the DNA. It varies with age and depends on the metabolic processes in the body.

    If a set of chemical reactions that arise in a living body to maintain its functioning correspond to its genetic norm, then the composition of the components of the mixtures, slightly changing, still remains, due to Homeostasis, within certain ranges.

    If the metabolism is disturbed due to serious changes in the functioning of the epithelial tissue, which is a layer of cells lining the surface (epidermis) and body cavities (including the mucous membranes of the internal organs, the food tract, the respiratory system, the genitourinary tract, and the majority of the glands of the body) Then the composition of the components of the mixtures varies. This deviation from the Norm is called Pathology.

    But the “hormonal norm”, like the “hormonal pathology” should somehow be measured! To competently manage them and predict their change.

    How to “digitize a patient”? And in general mammals?

    It is known that the “hormonal norm” varies with both genetically determined sexual orientation, and with age. In other words, at different periods of a person’s life, his hormonal-age classification characteristics, differ from year to year. And doctors must take this into account. How to take into account the state registration authorities, replacing the photograph in the passport. So there is the idea of the Hormonal Sexual-Age Passport.

    All this leads to the need to find ways to measure the composition of hormones and correlate this composition with the measured physical (according to Rutherford) parameters.

    Physicists are able to determine the physical parameters of mixtures. This can be the permittivity (εr),  magnetic permeability (μr),  specific electrical conductivity (σr)) These physical parameters accurately determine the physical (according to Rutherford) parameters of the object (mixture). As a fingerprinting.

    As in the case of the “Hormonal Norm”, and in the case of “Hormonal Pathology.” So there is the idea of creating a Hormonal Sexual-Age Data Bank and a Hormonal Pathology Data Bank.

    The problems associated with the detection and elimination of pathological manifestations are especially important for physicians and their patients who are located at sites far from well-equipped medical institutions. This is, first of all, the personnel of ships, personnel and servicemen of remote bases and oil platforms and astronauts.

    However, early diagnosis of pathology is necessary for each of us. In the near future, the implanted chip will transmit to the doctor’s computer all the necessary parameters for the hormonal components of blood, lymph and urine.
    Of great importance is the early diagnosis of the selection and admission of personnel for the work of people in strategically important positions in strategically important facilities.

    The present work is devoted to familiarizing physicians with the fundamentals of the combinatorial theory of mixtures, unitary symmetry of mixtures and the use of these concepts for predicting drug activity in pharmacology and early diagnosis of pathologies.

    Keywords: mixtures, Unitary Symmetry of  Mixtures, blood, lymph, urine, hormones, diagnostics of pathologies.

    Pages: 295 – 304 | Full PDF Paper