Optimization of CO2 emission factors in urban cities of Kuwait
Ilham Al-Shemmeri1, Sahar Ajrawi2
1. Ministry of Public Works, Kuwait.
2. Kuwait National Petroleum Company.
Abstract: This paper presents a study examining strategies that assist in planning and constructing green buildings in urban cities. Hence, contributing in creating a sustainable environment. Two case studies including commercial and residential buildings in Mutla, Kuwait were analyzed for CO2 emissions. Kuwait code requirements fall significantly short of what is required for low carbon housing. Therefore, energy consumption for the two types of buildings was modeled with an energy simulation software. Furthermore, optimization was carried out on the overall heat transfer coefficient value of the wall, roof and window. Moreover, the solar heat gain coefficient value of the glazing was optimized to improve the environmental performance of housing. Economical study was conducted to determine the effect of cost. The data was optimized with the payback calculations as a necessary optimality condition, which resulted in four optimized values for each case. The emissions decreased by 7% and 10% for the residential and commercial buildings.
Keywords: Commercial, Residential, Energy Consumption, Optimization, CO2 emissions
Pages: 241 – 246 | Full PDF Paper
Quantification of Active Compounds of Edible Mushrooms in University of Phayao, Thailand
A. Pitakpong1, S. Parnmen
1. Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Phayao, 19 village no. 2 Maeka Sub-district, Muang District, Phayao Province, 56000, Thailand.
2. Toxicology Center, National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to quantify active compounds from sixteen species of edible mushrooms in University of Phayao, Thailand. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the polysaccharides extracted from edible mushrooms were evaluated with 3 methods including Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprint method, DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis of these extracts by TLC fingerprint and DPPH from sixteen species of edible mushrooms were found alkaloid, tannin, steroid and antioxidant, but 2 species in Lacterius piperatus (Scop. Ex Fr.) S.F. Gray and Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff.) Fr. were not found alkaloids and tannin. According to the type and quantity of phenolic compounds in the edible mushrooms by HPLC technique, the specimens consisted of oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, quinic acid, and succinic acid.
Keywords: mushrooms, active compounds, University of Phayao.
Pages: 247 – 257 | Full PDF Paper