1. Photoinactivation of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Circulating Water Using Chitosan Membranes Containing Porphyrin

    Cintia Ramos Camargo, Virginia da Conceição Amaro Martins, Ana Maria de Guzzi Plepis and Janice Rodrigues Perussi

    Abstract: Two different porphyrins were incorporated to chitosan membranes aiming photoinactivation of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, which can be present in drinking water due to contamination. The incorporated porphyrin were 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-aminophenyl)-porphyrin (p-TAPP) and meso-tetrakis (4-N-metylpyridyl)-porphyrin (TMPyP). To verify the photoactivity of the membranes were employed static and dynamic (water flow system) arrangements containing E. coli exposed to an apparatus containing white LEDs. Evaluation of the static setup showed that both incorporated porphyrins have caused a considerable bactericidal effect under irradiation (3 log reduction in 180 min, for p-TAPP and 5 log reduction in 120 min for TMPyP). Therefore, the photoinactivation was most effective for TMPyP leading to a greater reduction in cell proliferation with shorter irradiation time. The results showed that the dynamic setup, using chitosan membranes containing TMPyP, was effective showing 3 log reduction at 80 min irradiation. These results suggest that the process is valuable and has potential to eliminate microbial contaminants in water.

    Keywords: Bacteria, water, photoinactivation, quitosan, photosensitizer.

    Pages: 67 – 75 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Mode of Action of Potassium Salt of 2-Thioxo-4-Hydroxycoumarin [3, 4-b] Pyrimidine and 9-Bromo-2-Thioxo-Hydroxycoumarin [3, 4-b] Pyrimidine Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

    Faten Zahran, Akaber T. Keshta, I. M. EL-Deen, M. M. El-behary

    Abstract: Coumarin and pyrimidine derivatives have attracted intense interest in recent years because they have anti-tumor, antioxidant activities, and induce apoptosis. Our study aims to evaluate the antitumor and anti-oxidant activities of new Coumarin derivatives: Potassium salt of 2-thioxo-4-hydroxycoumarin [3, 4-b] pyrimidine and 9-bromo-2-thioxo-hydroxycoumarin [3, 4-b] pyrimidine against in vivo tumor model. Coumarino [3, 4-b] pyrimidine -2-thioles (4 a,b) were prepared and their cytotoxicity were determined. The compounds [3a & 3b] exhibited a significant anti-oxidant activity towards Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by reduction the MDA by 30.3% & 54.9% and NO concentration by 19.4% & 39.6% (p<0.001), respectively; compared to the positive control group. Whereas significantly increase in the CAT activity by 150%, 700%, respectively; and SOD activity by 102.9% and 379.9%, (p<0.001) respectively; in [3a & 3b] treated groups compared to the positive control group. Anticancer agent kills tumors at least partially through induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatments with 3a and 3b showed a significantly increase in  Caspase-3 activity by 85.9% and 269.23%, (p<0.001), respectively; and cytochrome c by 85.9% and 269.23%, (p<0.001), respectively; compared positive control group. The synthesized compounds have potent antioxidant activity and good inducer for apoptosis by induction of caspase-3 and releasing of cytochrome c.

    Keywords: Coumarins, Pyrimidine, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, apoptosis.

    Pages: 76 – 89 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Liquid-Phase Aerobic Oxidation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Catalytic Presence of Nanosized Complexes

    V.M. Abbasov, L.M. Afandiyeva, L.H. Nuriyev, F.N. Seyidahmadova, B.M. Aliyev, E.Sh. Abdullayev

    Abstract: Liquid-phase aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons naphthenic-paraffinic concentrate 217-349оС of Azerbaijan oils blend diesel fraction in the presence of pentanuclear complexes of Cr, Co, Ni and their mixtures with Zn, Cr salts of natural petroleum acids (MeNPA) has been conducted. Dimensions of crystal structure of catalytic complexes was measured by diffractometer NONIUS CAD4 and calculated with aid of NRCVAX13 program. The surface of the crystals was analyzed by atomic-force (scanning probe type) microscope SZLM. There have been studied the dependence of yield of petroleum acids on the composition of the catalized. The largest yields of synthetic petroleum acids (SPA) are observed for the catalysts which was taken as mixture. The varying ratio of MeNPA:ComplexMe (Me-metal) significantly affects the performance of the process. Combined use of the catalysts leads to the synergetic effect. The most optimal ratio of catalysts is established as ZnNPA+comp.Co = 2 : 1 (0.1 + 0.05wt.%) and CrNPA+comp.Co= 2 : 1( 0.1 + 0.05wt.%), with yields 22.2% and 23.4% of SPA. Along with petroleum acids the SPA contain also fatty acids of isostructure. The results obtained are recommended for realization in an industrial scale for SPA production.

    Keywords: Diesel fraction, petroleum hydrocarbons, liquid-phase oxidation, catalysts of oxidation, synthetic petroleum acids.

    Pages: 90 – 96 | Full PDF Paper
  4. Ethno Mycological Survey and Biological Activities of Mushroom Extracts Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Epidermidis From Papua New Guinea

    John K Nema, Stewart Wossa, Edwin Costillo, Basil Marasinghe, Jeyarathan Pooranalingam and Russell Barrow

    Abstract: An ethno – mycological survey of more than 60 edible and non edible mushroom species was undertaken in the Siane area of Simbu Province in Papua New Guinea to establish the scientific merits of the ethno mycological knowledge of the Waefo tribe. Ethno mycological information obtained was used as a guide to prepare mushroom extracts of the Polyporaceae family. The concentrated mushroom extracts were tested for their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a 96 well plate method at the Research School of Chemistry Australian National University. The results showed that the extracts (KMsp001 and KMsp002) were proven to be moderately active against S.epidermidis with a growth inhibition of 34 and 47 percent respectively and KMSp 002 was also active against E.coli with growth inhibition of 26 percent.

    Keywords: Ethno-mycology, growth inhibition, Polypore extracts, S.epidermidis, E.coli.

    Pages: 97 – 103 | Full PDF Paper
  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Supported on Hexagonal Mesoporous Silicaand its Application as Photocatalyst for the Wastewater Treatment

    L. Aoudjit, F. Madjene, H. Lebik, B. Boutra, A. Sebti, S. Igoud

    Abstract: Template synthesis of the porous materials is one of the most intensive research fields in the preparation of materials and catalysts. Many kinds of mesoporous materials such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) , SBA-n and FSM-16were synthesized by using various types of organic templating agents since M41S materials were successfully synthesized. These materials present a regular array of uniform one- or three-dimensional pores with diameters of 1.5–10 nm and high surface areas. Therefore, the mesoporous materials are suitable for use as a catalyst or support for the chemical reactions with larger molecules. Among these materials, the mesoporous molecular sieve with a wormhole framework structure denoted as HMS has many advantages. HMS is easily synthesized by the sol–gel reaction using a cheaper primary alkylamine as the structure direction agent at room temperature. Such HMS possesses thicker framework walls, small crystallite size of primary particles and complementary textural porosity to provide better transport channels for reactants and products. The transition metal cations can be incorporated into the HMS framework uniformly with high contents and the organic phasecan be totally removed from the as-synthesized HMS samples by simple calcination.In the present work, we report the synthesis and characterization of such materials impregnated titanium dioxide (TiO2) supported on Hexagonal Mesoporous (HMS).

    Keywords: Water treatment, hexagonal mesoporous silica, TiO2/HMS.

    Pages: 104 – 107 | Full PDF Paper
  6. Proteins Diversity in Various Tissue of the Body of Carps

    Amita Saxena and Ningthoukhongjam Soranganba

    Abstract: The production of culture and capture fishery of Indian major carps and Exotic CARPS, biochemical analysis has been conducted in farmed reared composite species of Indian major carps and Exotic carps to study its biodiversity. General protein from gill, muscle, heart and kidney were separated in SDS-PAGE (10% gradient) in which no polymorphism was observed. The Rm values were critically analysed using Jaccard’s coefficient and the dendogram generated on UPGMA basis by computer software gives the closeness among the species, but the overall observation found more or less to be tissue specific.

    Keywords: Fish, Carps, Protein, Rm value.

    Pages: 108 – 122 | Full PDF Paper