1. Isolation Entomopathogenic Fungi at Erzincan Province

    Engin KILIÇ

    Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Basic Pharmacy Sciences.

    Abstract: The first rule to develop new microbial control agents that may be alternnative to chemical pesticides in agricultural pests control are to isolate entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). EPF are originate from soil and microorganisms which are friendly to human and environment. In order to develop the new mycoinsecticides we have carried out a project between 2014-2016. Our aim was to isolate the insect pathogenic fungi found in agricultural land and invertebtrata. Soil samples were collected from agricultural areas (vegetable fied, fruit field, sugarbeet and barly-weat field) and other fieds (pasture, grassland and forest area). As a result we obtained 78 fungal isolates and fungal culture consit of the 63 isolates of Beauveria bassiana  (Balsamo) Vull. and 15 isolates of Metharhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Factors affecting the occurence and distrubution of entomopathogenic fungi in 60 soil samples collected from cultivated and natural (forest, pasture) areas at Erzincan were examined. EPF were isolated from 18 of the 60 soil samples. We found however, an association between M. anisopliae and soil has been found from cultivated habitats. M. anisopliae found only cultivated habitats. We also isolated totatly 44 entomopathogenic fungi ısolates from insect that 29 ısolates of them is B. bassiana and 15 isolates from them is Metharzium anisopliae.

    Keywords: Isolation, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, soil, insects, Erzincan.

    Pages: 39 – 52 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Global Warming are We Missing Some Important Factors?

    Paul Somerville

    Independent Scientific Studies, Hartside Crescent, Blaydon on Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom, NE21 6HL.


    Finding solutions to (global warming) has never been more urgently needed, we are all aware of the devastating effects unfolding in our world today. Our atmosphere needs balance, we are sucking air out, faster than nature can replace it. The known process (plant cell respiration) is natures atmosphere builder, there are no other processes known to us for turning water into atmospheric gasses without any additional energy my paper investigates respiration in more depth.

    My research of energy, has found some interesting comparisons to natures building blocks, (cold fusion reactions by Renzo mondanini 2012) my paper investigates the importance of maintaining a balanced atmosphere, highlighting results from calculations, showing the vast amounts of air, we need to fuel our modern way of living, could we be overlooking the most important factor?

    As well as highlighting the causes of global warming, my paper investigates what we need to put in place to address the imbalances, proposing the unfolding of an experiment, (operation re-nature).

    Keywords: over use of oxygen, atmospheric gasses, operation re-nature.

    Pages: 53 – 60 | Full PDF Paper