Discovery of Trace Fossils from Lower Odania Member of Lathi Formation of Jaisalmer Basin, Akal area, District- Jaisalmer, Western Rajasthan, India
V. S. PARIHAR*, S.L. NAMA AND S. C. MATHUR
Department of Geology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-342005, Rajasthan.
Abstract: The Lathi Formation is the oldest lithostratigraphic unit unconformably overlying rocks of Malani Igneous suites, Birmania Formation, Marwar Supergroup and Bhadhura Formation and overlain by lower Hamira Member of Jaisalmer Formation of the Jaisalmer Basin. It is well developed mainly in the vicinity of Lathi, Odania, Thaiat and Akal area and divided into two members viz; Lower Odania Member and Upper Thaiat Member. The present investigations here documented eight trace fossils namely Thalassinoides suevicus, Thalassinoides paradoxica, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus tubularis, Gyrocrote and Phycodes palmatum from grayish yellow coarse to medium grained calcareous sandstone of Lower Odania Member of Lathi Formation of Jaisalmer Basin in Akal area. The trace fossils bearing Akal section is located about 18km south of Jaisalmer city on NH-15. The complete section is about 22m thick comprises glauconitic sandstone at the base, calcareous sandstone, petrified wood bed and ferruginous sandstone with box works and concretionary structures. These trace fossils are well -preserved and abundant in nature in Akal area and ethologically they represents domichnia and fodinichnia. The ichnological and sedimentological investigations suggest near-shore to shallow marine depositional environment of trace fossils bearing calcareous sandstone of Akal area. No age can be assigned on the basis of these trace fossils as they have long range (Precambrian to Recent).
Keywords: Trace fossils, Odania Member, Lathi Formation, Jaisalmer Basin and Western Rajasthan.
Pages: 195 – 210 | Full PDF Paper
Spatial and Seasonal Characteristics of Inorganic Chemicals in Armağanköy Dam Water, Thrace Region
Füsun Ekmekyapar1, Ahmet Serhat Akar2
1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Namık Kemal University, 59860, Tekirdağ, Turkey.
2. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Namık Kemal University, 59860, Tekirdağ, Turkey.
Abstract: The study provides a baseline for the assessment of the inorganic pollution specially, metal contamination in the water Armağanköy dam, Ergene River basin. A survey of inorganic chemicals was performed in water samples collected in Armağanköy dam reservoirs during 2015. Water samples from six sampling sites were collected and analyzed for 10 different water quality parameters. Using these data, a regional irrigation water quality was assessed using one technique: United States Department of Agriculture Method (USDA). This method revealed that the dam water salinity, as represented by electrical conductivity, ECw, ranges from low salinity (C1: ECw < 250 micromhos cm–1) to medium salinity (C2: ECw < 750 micromhos cm–1). The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is low (S1) sodicity. Therefore, the water of the dam is dominantly of the C2–S1 class and C1–S1 classes at the sampling site of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 5, respectively. Inorganic analyses were performed according to USEPA method. The cation concentrations are gradually decreases from the February towards the April. Cu2+ and Mo2+ displayed higher values in the dry season, while higher values for Fe2+ and Mn2+ in the wet season. The concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+ and Mo2+ are generally higher than the other sampling sites at the sampling sites 1 and 6. Correlation analyses showed that metal content of Armağanköy dam water was affected by pH, ECw and TSS. The heavy metal concentrations in the water samples from the dam reservoirs followed the order: Mn2+ > Fe2+ > Mo2+ > Cu2+.
Keywords: Hydrochemistry, dam waters quality, irrigation, inorganic chemicals, heavy metals.
Pages: 211 – 222 | Full PDF Paper
Dialectic Aspect of Evolutionary Outlook
E. O. Heyfetz
Pages: 223 – 227 | Full PDF Paper
Solar Enegy Resource in Madeira Islands (Portugal): Maps and Daily Evolution of Global Solar Radiation
Izquierdo P.1, Vazquez V.1, Santos JM.1, Magro C.2
1. Mechanical Engineering Dpt., University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310, Vigo, Spain.
2. Regional Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Govern of Madeira, Rua Agostino, 9000-264, Funchal, Portugal.
In this paper, solar energy resource study in madeira islands (portugal) is realized. In a first approach, solar irradiances at ground level are obtained applying the heliosat-2 method to earth images taken by the meteosat-6 satellite. these results are, in turn, calibrated (normalized) with data of solar radiation measured in six meteorological stations in the region. also, daily evolution of horizontal global solar radiation and temperature are characterized in these six stations, which depicted the different climatic areas of the archipelago.
Twelve monthly tables of daily average global solar radiation in each pixel of the image included in the study are obtained and yearly values are calculated from them. the thirteen tables are taken to the arcgis application to obtain yearly and monthly radiation maps for the region.
Also, monthly and yearly characteristics days of the region, six representative stations data base are study. in relation to solar radiation, characteristic day is defined as the day of the month with the sun trajectory closest to the daily average sun trajectory of the month and the daily global horizontal solar irradiation equal to the daily average of the month. it is assumed a sine-type evolution of the global irradiances along the day. in relation to temperature, a characteristic day is also assumed to have a sine-type evolution along the daylight hours of the day, with the minimum and maximum values at sunrise and two hours after noon, respectively.
Keywords: solar energy irradiation, characteristic day, radiation maps, Madeira Archipelago.
Pages: 228 – 240 | Full PDF Paper