Developing Deterioration Prediction Model for the Potable Water Pipes Renewal Plan – Case of Jubail Industrial City, KSA
Ali Madan Al-Ali, Jean Laurent, Jean Philippe Dulot
Marafiq-Saur Operation & Maintenance Company.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the appropriate parameters for predicting the potable water pipes deterioration. The study evaluated the strength of some variables related to pipe breaks probability of failure based mainly on logistic regression model. The independent variables included in the study are static variables such as pipe diameter, pipe length and pipe material in addition to some dynamic (time-based) variables such as pipe age, water pressure and water velocity. The pipe break history (number of pipe breaks) for each pipe segment is used as dependent variable to be predicted in the statistical model. The resulted prediction equation is then used to calculate the failure probability for each pipe in the potable water network. Finally, prioritization of pipes is performed and the annual renewal plan is developed for the city of Jubail Industrial City in KSA based on the model results.
Keywords: GIS, Geographical Information Systems, Pipes, Renewal, Logistic, Regression.
Pages: 359 – 373 | Full PDF Paper
Evidence for Poecilogony and Potential “Sequential” Poecilogony in Mediterranean Members of the Genus Raphitoma (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae)
Thanasis Manousis1*, Dimitrios Petridis2, Sofia Galinou-Mitsoudi3
1. PO Box 48 K, 57500 Epanomi, Greece. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2. International Hellenic University (IHU) School of Agricultural Technology, Food Technology and Nutrition. Department of Food Technology Secretariat. PO Box 141, 57 400 Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece. Email: email@example.com
3. International Hellenic University (IHU). Department of Environmental Engineering. PO BOX 141, 574 00 Thessaloniki, Greece. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: Published morphometric data of the maximum diameter of protoconch I of 20 Raphitoma species belonging to 10 pairs of “sibling” species grouped in 12 sets were subjected to Orthogonal Regression Analysis (ORA) for congruence with the poecilogony hypothesis proposed by MANOUSIS et al. (2018). Results exclude the possibility that the obtained data are random but further investigations (e.g. DNA) will support the hypothesis.
Keywords: Mediterranean Sea, poecilogony, Raphitoma.
Pages: 374 – 389 | Full PDF Paper
Electromagnetic Radiation Including G5 Frequencies, Health Effects Summary and Policy Recommendations
Yael Stein MD
Physician, and researcher of health effects of electromagnetic radiation. Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hebrew University – Hadassah Medical Center, Kiryat Hadassah P.O.B 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Introduction: 5G millimeter wave technology offers advantages: “smart” homes, “smart” cities and autonomic automobiles. A rise of at least 30-100% in exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from antennas in the public space near citizens’ homes is expected, and higher exposure levels inside homes from millions of devices communicating with antennas (“Internet of Things”). Scientists have declared current exposure levels not relevant to protect against health effects. A rise in exposure raises the risk of an extreme rise in incidence of adverse health effects including electrohypersensitivity. Susceptible members of the public such as pregnant women, babies and children have a right to be protected from chronic exposure of public source, in their private homes, against their will. Following implementation of 5G technology in the public space, some electrohypersensitive individuals would be forced to leave their homes and become refugees.
Methodology: Presented at the CEST 2019 Electromagnetic Radiation Workshop, this is a summary of some of the adverse health effects reported following exposure to electromagnetic radiation, and of health effects of exposure to 5G frequencies (millimeter waves) reported in animal studies. No study that proves safety of 5G frequencies for public use exists.
Reported effects: Reported health effects, similar to symptoms reported in Occupational Medicine studies in the 1950-60’s, include: headache, hematologic problems, fertility problems, decline in libido and neural effects –named “Microwave Sickness”. In newer studies this same syndrome is called Electrohypersensitivity. EMR has been categorized as a possible human carcinogen by IARC. Experiments conducted in former USSR on animals exposed to non-thermal levels of millimeter waves for only 15 minutes a day demonstrated detectable changes in both the central and peripheral nervous system, changes in permeability of blood vessels, changes in the reflex response of the nervous system (stronger response from a lower trigger) and changes in the hematopoietic and lymphatic systems. Studies from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and from Japan demonstrate that human sweat ducts respond to millimeter waves and concentrate the energy inside the skin, contradicting the assumption that G5 frequencies cannot penetrate the skin.
Conclusions: There is no known method to measure 5G frequencies outside the laboratory. The decision to authorize 5G frequencies by the US FCC relied only on thermal 1996 guidelines and did not take non-thermal biological effects or public health precautionary measures into account. Extensive public exposure keeping with thermal allowable levels is expected to have adverse health effects and is therefore unsafe. Safer alternatives do exist: broad band internet via fiber-optic infrastructure, including for wired “smart” meters. Electromagnetic radiation is an environmental pollutant. There is a need to evaluate the potential health effects and the environmental effects of both the new and the existing technology as well as the economic burden on the Health system of a rise in health effects including electrohypersensitivity. In accordance with the precautionary principle, it is the responsibility of those who wish to implement G5 technology, to prove that it is safe for public use.
Keywords: Electrohypersensitivity, EHS, Electromagnetic radiation, G5 frequencies, IOT.
Pages: 390 – 397 | Full PDF Paper