• Combinatorial Heredity System, Homology of Genotypes and Unitary Symmetry of Genotypes and Phenotypes

    Vladimir Komarov

    Department of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia.


    Nature is conservative in two major hypostases. The first is the combination of elements of one level of development of matter with the formation of a set of objects of the next, more complex, level of development of matter, which, in turn, is the initial set of elements for forming compounds of the next, more complex, level of matter development.

    This process with small transformations of a homeostatic character occurs in all natural and civilizational areas – from quarks to philology.

    The second basic, conservative hypostasis of Nature is the parallelism of general regularities, manifested in the formation of each of the levels of development of matter, i.e. Such features as homology (gradualness), hierarchy of interactions of elements in complex objects, normal distribution, symmetry, periodicity, etc. are repeated in a number of details and in physical objects and processes, and in chemical objects and processes, and in biological processes … And even in philology and economics.

    In my previous articles, I showed how these properties of natural phenomena manifest themselves in physics, chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. In this article I am trying to create a combinatorial system of heredity and to show the advantages of implementing my ideas about Unitary symmetry in Genetics

    If Gregor Johann Mendel, being a teacher of mathematics and physics, would have become acquainted with the works of the ancient Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE) or, at worst, would have read the book “De Arte Combinatoria” (publ. 1690) of Gottfried Wilhelm (Von) Leibniz and penetrated into the physical essence of the systematic in 1869 systematics of chemical elements of Julius Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Mendeleev…

    If chemists, biologists, physicians and educators understood, …

    … then in 1856 Gregor would understand that behind each phenotypic manifestation of the image of the object (physical property) follows a certain structural unit (in chemistry – a combination of nuclei and electrons).

    … then Gregor would understand that different phenotypes most likely correspond to different structural units (later called Genes). In addition, if the structural units are different, but have the same biochemical nature, then these structural units themselves are complex objects.

    … then Gregor would understand that only the combinations of smaller structural units, later called codons, can be the different structural units of one biochemical nature (different versions of one Gene are alleles).

    Of course, Gregor Johann Mendel could not have any idea of the hierarchy of interactions between codons and histones. Therefore, the building of Genetics, he began to build “from the second floor,” before he reached the Great Ernest Rutherford, who later postulated that all sciences are divided into physics and collecting stamps.

    Many scientists do not understand this until now. Therefore, they build the Interdisciplinary Paradigm on the basis of phenomenological unification, for example, biology and chemistry in biochemistry, ignoring the Main Conservative Paradigm of Nature – Unitary Symmetry of Combinative Objects of Nature.

    Chemists of past years have been fascinated by alchemy and the pursuit of discoveries of new chemical elements and have not yet thought about their taxonomy.

    About biologists and physicians and can not speak. They in their knowledge were and remain very far from the physical interpretations of their practical work. Not to mention combinatorics and group theory.

    n this article I show how the Universal Paradigm of Nature (Unitarian Symmetry of Combinatorial Objects of Nature), which is postulated by me and adapted to different discrete objects [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] helps to build a physical foundation for Genetics and, in particular, for the Laws of Mendel.

    Pages: 273 – 282 | Full PDF Paper