Unitary Symmetry of Atoms, Molecules, Codons, Mixtures and Its Applications in Chemistry, Genetics, Pharmacology and Early Diagnosis of Diseases
Department of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia.
Nature is conservative in two main hypostases. The first is the combination of elements of one level of development of matter with the formation of a set of objects of the next, more complex, level of development of matter, which, in turn, is the initial set of elements for forming compounds of the next, more complex level of matter development.
This process with small transformations of a homeostatic character occurs in all natural and civilizational areas of development – from quarks to philology.
The second basic, conservative hypostasis of Nature is the parallelism of general regularities, manifested in the formation of each of the levels of development of matter, i.e. such features as homology (gradualness), hierarchy of interactions of elements in complex objects, normal distribution, symmetry, periodicity, etc. are repeated in a number of details and in physical objects and processes, and in chemical objects and processes, and in biological processes … And even in philology and economics.
If the physicist Murray Gell-Mann (He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969 for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions) knew all this, …
If chemists, biologists, physicians and educators understood, …
Then in the early 60s of the last century, solving the inverse problem of combinatorics (representing a proton and a neutron in the form of a combination of invented quark-elements), Murray would understand that chemistry is a classical variant of the direct combinatorial problem – the nuclei of atoms consist of combinations Protons and neutrons with repetitions, the atoms consist of combinations of nuclei and electrons with repetitions, the molecules consist of atoms with repetitions and permutations.
Then Murray would understand that between protons and neutrons in nuclei, between nuclei and electrons, between electrons in atoms, between atoms in molecules, as well as between molecules in stationary mixtures (particles in plasma and reagents of chemical reactions), there exists Hierarchy of interactions, some of which can be compensated under certain conditions.
Then Murray would understand that combining elements of one level of matter development with the formation of a set of objects of the next, more complex level of matter development leads to the formation of two types of homologous series – homologies, formed as a result of replacing one element in a combinatorial object with another element from a certain set, which I call homology of substitution, and homologies, formed as a result of attaching a constant particle or a constant group of particles to a base formation (such as the length of a carbon chain). Such homology series can be called the homology of adjunction.
Then Murray would understand that the combinatorial sequences of homology of substitution can be divided into several groups of two-link homologies, when considering which, in certain physical conditions, compensation for some weak interactions appears in the space of physical parameters.
Then Murray would understand that in the relations of a physical parameter for combinatorial two-link homologous objects, the manifestation of compensation for certain interactions leads to the invariance of the relations of the physical parameter. And the symmetry corresponding to these invariants is Unitary Symmetry.
But Murray was a physicist, a narrow specialist in the field of elementary particles!
And Chemists did not know what combinatorics was, they did not know the theory of groups, they did not know that in addition to the homologous series formed by the principle of addition, there are homologous series formed by the principle of substitution. And, of course, they did not know how some interactions between the electrons and the nucleus in the atom and between the electrons in the molecule can be easily compensated.
Chemists were carried away by nonmeasurable (adjustable) coefficients in quantum models and by additive methods of estimating physical parameters.
About biologists and physicians and can not speak. In their knowledge, they are very far from the physical interpretations of combinatorics and group theory.
I’m in my article tries popular to talk about what is the basis of notions of unitary symmetry and its critical applications in chemistry, genetics, pharmacology and diagnosis of diseases.
Pages: 211 – 228 | Full PDF Paper