1. Application of Anti-Bacterial Feature to Wet Wipes Made of Cellulosic Fibre Based

    Osman Yayla*, Mustafa Özgeç, Ersan Ay, Ümit Gençtürk, Azize İnce

    Pakten Health Products Inc., R&D Center, 27650 Gaziantep, Turkey.

    Abstract: Nonwoven wipes can be divided into two main types: consumer and industrial. Consumer wipes include baby wipes, personal care wipes, skin cleansing wipes, and home or home care wipes, while industrial wipes are divided into general purpose, specialty, food service and health wipes. After the production of the first baby wipes in the 1970s, the wet wipes sector, which grew with the expansion of the market, started to be used in many areas in the mid-1990s. It continues to grow rapidly today with softer products with higher cleaning and protection performance. The environment where our hands are in frequent contact has a rich microbial flora. It is very important to clean our hands daily, which contain the most microorganisms. It is stated that the priority for proper hand hygiene according to experts is to wash the hand with soap and water. In cases where washing with soap and water is not possible, hand cleaning with antibacterial wet wipes or hand disinfectants is recommended. In this study, it was aimed to create antibacterial wet wipes by adding benzalkonium chloride in different concentrations to natural fiber-based spunlace nonwovens. The antibacterial effectiveness of wet wipes has been tested according to TS EN 1276 standard. Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442), Enterococcus Hirae (ATCC 10541) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) bacterial applied in accordance with the test standard were determined to be eliminated at a rate of 99.9% after 1 minute. Within the scope of the study, the effect of antibacterial wet wipe on the skin was examined according to the OECD TG 439 test standard and it was observed that it did not cause any irritation on the skin.

    Keywords: Benzalkonium Chloride, Bacteria, Antibacterial, Wet Wipes.

    Pages: 80 – 96 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Measuring Natural Radiation (N.O.R.M) inside some oil fields in Libya

    Ezeddine Hamida

    Petroleum Training & Qualifying Institute- Tripoli/Libya.

    Abstract: In this study,  the natural  radiation which known scientifically as NORM ( Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) was measured,  six different samples from different fields were collected, Sample 1, 2 and 3 are crude oil mixed with soil  (Sludge) taken from the oil lakes (pits), Sample 4 is a crude oil taken from storage tanks,    samples 5 and 6 are a squamous crust (Scales) accumulated in the production  pipe lines.

    Keywords: NORM, Scales, Sludge, crude oil, radiation.

    Pages: 97 – 108 | Full PDF Paper