1. Life Angles of Trees

    Pınar ÖZDEMİR*, Nuray İlkim KARAKÖÇEK, Ayyüce ÖCAL

    Haydarpaşa High School, Istanbul, Turkey.


    Does every tree have a certain branching angle in itself? Are branching angles of trees determined by genetic factors? Is the branching angle affected by the presence of the tree in the natural environment or in the cultivation? Does branching angle need to be included in identification key for every speciy?  Our aims are to find answers to questions.

    Previous works on this subject have been examined. As a result of the works investigated, the species of trees to be observed were identified [Picea orientalis (Oriental spruce), Lagerstroemia indica (Crepe-Myrtle), Cedrus libani (Lebanese Cedar), Hibiscus syriacus (Rose of sharon), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine)]  and the characteristics of these tree species were studied. The areas where the specified tree species are found have been identified (Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanical Garden, Atatürk Arboretum, Beykoz Botanical Biodiversity and Geofit Research and Training Center Directorate, Büyükada Natural Forest) Before carrying into practice, it has been gone to the areas identified with the material (Protractor, Protractor Application, Tape Measure) to be used and the measurement was made. The measurements made were tabulated.

    We have measured the branching angle that we think is a feature that depends on the genetic material in the light of the hypothesis we create in the tree species. It has been observed that the branching angle of the samples of a specie taken from different places does not change, and the branching angle of different species observed in the same places is different. From this observation, we suggest that the branching angle does not depend on external factors such as soil, climate, humidity etc. but branching angle is a characteristic feature unique to the specie. However, we can suggest that the branching motion may depend on the light. No difference has been observed in the branching angles of the natural and cultivated Pinus brutia trees which we measured. Depending on our observation, we have concluded that the growth of the tree in its natural or cultivated environment is not a factor on the branching angle, and we have supported the hypothesis that the branching angle is a feature of genetic material. Problems such as sidewalk shedding, uncontrolled and unethical cutting of trees, removing them from their areas or mechanical damages in their environment can be eliminated if the branching angles of the tree species planted on the roadsides, parks and gardens are known beforehand.

    Also, if the branching angles of the trees in the field of agriculture are known, it shall enable the establishment of healthy distances between the trees.

    Keywords: Branching, trees, natural, cultivated, environment.

    Pages: 121 – 132 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Relative Importance of Attributes of Locally Grown Apple that Affects Consumer’s Choice in Malang, Indonesia

    Lizia Zamzami

    Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICSFRI), Jalan Raya Tlekung no. 1, Junrejo, Batu – East Java, Indonesia.

    Abstract: As the result of the emergence of middle class, and the awareness raising of consuming healthy food in Indonesia, the trend of diet and consumption pattern is gradually changing. People are getting aware of consuming fruit, such as apple. The provision of high quality fruit and appropriate fruit retailer easily access to consumers are important. These supports must comply with consumer’s needs and wants, because consumer’s attitude and preferences in selecting food is complex. Therefore, it is essential to comprehend consumers’ valuation towards attributes of the locally grown apple based on their preferences. The objective of the study is to identify attributes that are considered relatively important by consumers when purchasing locally grown apples in Malang, Indonesia. The study employed an intercept survey involving 200 consumer respondents. The sample was randomly selected at four different retailer types, namely, traditional wet market, road side stall, supermarket and modern fruit shop. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect the primary data regarding quality attributes of locally grown apples considered important by the consumers while buying locally grown apple. The study focused on 14 attributes of locally grown apple, comprising of twelve intrinsic attributes and two extrinsic attributes. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results revealed that color, fineness, crispness, chewiness, sweetness, sourness and price had the highest mean values (above or equal to four), indicating that these attributes were considered relatively important for the consumers in decision making for buying locally grown apple.

    Keywords: Apples, fruit attribute, consumer, wet market, buying behavior, Indonesia.

    Pages: 133 – 143 | Full PDF Paper