Exposure to Air Freshener and Its Corollary on the Bleeding Time and Electrolyte Profile of Wistar Albino Rats
1Odinga, T. 2Odu, C.O.
1. Department of Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
2. Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Abstract: Given the continuous and widespread use of air freshener as a means of masking or elimination of unpleasant smell and its associated health risks that have been reported, this study investigated the effects of exposure to Air freshener on the Blood Electrolytes as well as the Bleeding time. Gel air fresheners, in an enclose cage and eighteen wistar albino rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Group A served as control that was not exposed to air freshener, groups B, C, D, E and F were exposed for 2, 4, 6,8 and 10 hours respectively. Bleeding time test was carried out as well as the assay for blood electrolyte concentrations: (Na+, K+, HCO3–, Cl– and Ca2+) using the Ultra Violet spectrophotometer. The result of the blood electrolyte assays and that of the bleeding time were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance. Results obtained showed that the bleeding time increased significantly (P≤0.05) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours of exposure and there was a significant difference in electrolytes concentration of exposed animals compared to the control group. This study therefore suggests a reduction in exposure to air fresheners as its adverse health effect is proportional to the length of exposure.
Keywords: Air Fresheners, blood electrolytes, volatile organic compounds, bleeding time, toxicity.
Pages: 161 – 172 | Full PDF Paper
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Turkey.
Akgöl lake is located on the coast of Göksu Delta that is the most important wetland of the Eastern Mediterranean. Akgöl that is a freshwater lake, has a depth of 40 cm and a surface area of 1,245 km2. As a result of intensive agricultural activities, annual fertilizer use is much higher than the national average in the Göksu delta. The Akgöl lake water quality is also affected by the delta agricultural activities.
In this study, the water quality change of Akgöl was investigated depending on years. For this purpose, water samples were taken 7 times from 2006 (June), 2007 (July), 2008 (January-April), 2011(February-July), 2012 (September) in the same place. In the samples; pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity (Sal) and dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus were analyzed.
The analysis results were compared with “The Surface Water Quality Regulation Annex-5” limit values. The relationship of dissolved oxygen which is an important parameter for evaluating water quality of lakes, to other parameters (nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity) was explained by the regression analysis.
Keywords: Akgöl lake, regression analysis, water quality.
Pages: 173 – 189 | Full PDF Paper