1. Curcumin / BSA: New Approach for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment

    Faten Zahran, Essam Mady, Osama Yasein, Akaber T. Keshta

    Abstract: The systemic availability of curcumin is very low after oral administration; this limits their therapeutic potential. This study aims to increase the bioavailability of curcumin; the highest reproducible solubility modality will be applied on an experimental carcinogenesis models in order to evaluate its chemo-preventive, chemotherapeutic effects and antitumor potential. We found that administrating of curcumin (200 mg/kg I.P. bound to 5% BSA in PBS, pH 7.4) results in a significant inhibitory effect on tumor in vivo. An anti-oxidant effect and anti-tumor effect of curcumin in vivo was observed. A significant reduction in anti-oxidants and tumor markers levels in tumor treated animals when compared with untreated ones. As well as Bcl2 expression was reduced. Conclusion: curcumin bound BSA has a strong inhibitory activity against tumors. The anti-tumor mechanism may be mediated by preventing oxidative damage and induction of apoptosis improved animals’ chances of survival and they become healthier.

    Keywords: Curcumin, Bovine Serum albumin, Apoptosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Pages: 1 – 15 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Protective Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Combretum Zenkeri on Liver Functions of Albino Rats Following Benzo(A)Pyrene Exposure

    Okwu, G. N., Ogbonna, C. U., Ujowundu, C. O., Igwe, K. O., Igwe, C. U. and Emejulu, A. A.

    Abstract: This study investigated the protective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum zenkeri on liver functions of albino rats exposed to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with oxidant, inflammatory and carcinogenic effects. Acute toxicity analysis with the plant extract produced no lethality even at high doses. In this study, male albino rats were divided into 5 groups; the first group served as normal control and were not administered either benzo(a)pyrene or ethanol leaf extract of C. zenkeri. The 2nd group was treated intraperitoneally(i.p) with 200 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene only once and were not administered ethanol leaf extract of C. zenkeri. The 3rd group were exposed to 200 mg/kg BaP (i.p) and after two weeks were treated with 400 mg/kg ethanol leaf extract of C. zenkeri, while the fourth group were treated with 400 mg/kg ethanol leaf extract of C. zenkeri for two weeks before exposure to 200 mg/kg BaP.The fifth group was treated orally with 400mg/kg plant extract only.In each case, C. zenkeri treatment was on alternate days and the duration of the studies was for four weeks. Blood samples were used for biochemical analyses and liver tissues for histology.The malondialdehyde, total bilirubin concentrations and ALT and AST activity of groups exposed to benzo(a)pyrene without treatment were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those treated with the leaf extract before or after benzo(a)pyrene exposure. The GSH, total protein and albumin concentrations of groups exposed to benzo(a)pyrene without treatment were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control animals and those treated with the leaf extract together with benzo(a)pyrene exposure. Histological slides of the liver tissue showed a better outcome in the plant extract treated groups. The results of the study showed that C. zenkeri has a potential to ameliorate and repair damage to liver tissues.

    Keywords: Combretum zenkeri, benzo(a)pyrene, oxidative damage, liver function.

    Pages: 16 – 25 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Numerical Analysis of Blood Flow in the Dysplastic Circle of Willis Using One-dimensional Patient-Specific Model

    Xunjie YU, Changjin JI, Ying HE, and Junyuan CHEN

    Abstract: In this work, aiming at studying the impact of anatomical variations in the circle of Willis on the capacity of collateral blood supply, a computational scheme for constructing the patient-specific one-dimensional geometric models has been developed based on computerized tomography images. The lengths and diameters for different structures of circle of Willis (CoW) are extracted. Blood flow in the circle of Willis is modeled by using one dimensional equations derived from axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations for flow in elastic and compliant vessels.Two frequently observed anatomical variations of the CoW (ACA, A1 aplasia and ACA, A1 hypoplasia) have been simulated. The results are compared with those of the complete and well-balanced CoW. The results show that, in the complete and well balanced CoW, it is almost not required to use collateral pathways through the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) to regulate the blood supply in the brain. However, in the unilateral A1 aplasia (non-visualization of one A1) and A1 hypoplasia (less than 90% in size of dominant A1) structure, the role of ACoA becomes considerably important. Moreover, the result of our patient-specific models show that the ACoA outward hypertrophic remodeling can compensate the blood flow in the contralateral side well, which is different from that obtained by the previous average anatomical geometric models.

    Keywords: The circle of Willis, Patient-specific modeling, Anatomical variation, Outward hypertrophic remodeling, 1D modeling.

    Pages: 26 – 33 | Full PDF Paper
  4. Extraction of Byproducts of Hydrogen Peroxide Working Solution Using Solvent

    M Arshad Majeed, Suneela Sardar and S R Malik

    Abstract: Working solution comprising anthraquinone and its derivatives, used for preparation of hydrogen peroxide, leads to the formation of byproducts. These byproducts contain highly complex mixture of degradation products, which cannot take active part in the production of hydrogen peroxide, and cause higher viscosity and density of working solution. The low viscosity is important for mechanical reasons in cycling of the working solution through the equipment and density must be substantially different from the density of the water hydrogen peroxide solution resulting from water extraction of the hydrogen peroxide from the organic phase, in order to facilitate the extraction. The degradation products must be extracted from the working solution to prevent deteriorating the crude hydrogen peroxide color, smell, dissolved organic compounds and increase in density and viscosity of the working solution. A decrease in surface tension of the working solution promotes the formation of an emulsion during extraction degradation products decrease the activity and life time of the hydrogenation catalyst. Regeneration of the working solution for bringing it back to the good health a solvent Tetra Butyl Urea (TBU) is added in degraded working solution in a different proportion.

    Keywords: Regeneration, Anthraquinone, Tetra Butyl Urea, Degradation.

    Pages: 34 – 39 | Full PDF Paper
  5. Genetic Diversity Between Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and Snow Trout (Schizothorax richardsonii, Gray) By Rapd Markers

    Satesh Vasave, Amita Saxena, S. K. Srivastava and A. Barat

    Abstract: The study of genetic diversity between Rainbow trout and Snow trout were done by using random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The 5 RAPD primers generated a total 68 consistently scorable bands size ranging from 220-2018 bp. The percentage of polymorphic loci observed to be 17.65 % for Rainbow trout and 35.29 % for Snow trout. According to polymorphic loci the amount of genetic variation between the two species was Rainbow trout < Snow trout from low to high. The higher genetic diversity was found within the Snow trout population (0.1332), and lower genetic diversity was found for the Rainbow trout (0.0755). The Shannon index ranged from 0.1087 (Rainbow trout) to 0.1963 (Snow trout).

    Keywords: Combretum zenkeri, benzo(a)pyrene, oxidative damage, liver function.

    Pages: 40 – 51 | Full PDF Paper
  6. Gonad Development and Histology in Bagrus Bayad Cultured in Outdoor Earthen Ponds

    Tsadu S.M., Lamai S.L., Yisa T.A. And Ibrahim S.U.

    Abstract: Bagrus bayad (Daget) are found in Nigerian freshwaters in Rivers Niger, Benue, Kaduna and Lake Chad. This feral species were observed to have high growth rate and other aquaculture qualities. 200 live juveniles (100 males and 100 females) were maintained in 5m2 outdoor earthen ponds for 12 months. The objective was to study some aspects of their biology particularly the gonad development and histology, growth and survival with the aim of introducing the species into aquaculture. The fish were checked regularly at 4 weeks intervals for gonad development and maturity stages. One male and one female were dissected each time and gonads used for histological studies. Gonad developmental stages were classified according to description by Bruton (1979). Cross sections through the ovaries and testis showed gonads in stages II, III, IV and V. Photomicrographs of all the stages observed were made and described. Growth and development continued in the fish under culture and it was concluded that Bagrus bayad could be introduced into aquaculture.

    Keywords: Bagrus bayad, gonad, histology, aquaculture.

    Pages: 52 – 65 | Full PDF Paper