1. Use of Energy Resources as an Element of Energy Policy in South Korea, Japan and Turkey

    Sıtkı Selim DOLANAY1, Latif Onur UĞUR2, Bekir Sami OĞUZTÜRK3

    1.Dr, Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics, selimdolanay@hotmail.com, Ankara, Turkey.
    2.Asst. Prof., Düzce University, Faculty of Technology and Civil Engineering, latifugur@duzce.edu.tr, Düzce, Turkey.
    3.Assoc. Prof., Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics, bekiroguzturk@sdu.edu.tr, Isparta, Turkey.

    Abstract: While the experience of the 1970s has led to the discovery of the economics of energy, we can also say that countries have made radical changes in energy policies. After two oil crises in the 1970s, countries have sought to utilize alternative energy resources and to diversify their primary energy supply. The aim was to protect their own countries’ industries and to ensure the security of primary energy supply from the impact of sudden oil price increases. In recent years, diversification of resources has taken the environmental impacts of alternative sources of oil into account. In this context, renewable energy resources have been increasingly utilized. In addition to the water power used to obtain energy for many years, wind and solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass energy have also been utilized. Thus, an important element of the energy policy in the world has turned to utilize alternative energy sources by reducing dependence on oil. For this purpose, it is important to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels such as oil, which can be consumed in other reserves. However, in addition to renewable energy sources, the utilization of natural gas and nuclear power plants has continued at an accelerating rate. South Korea and Japan have given importance to nuclear power plants. Although Turkey has tried to diversify sources of energy supply after the oil crisis of the 1970s, the heavy-dependancy on imported fossil fuels still lasts. As Turkey began to turn to natural gas -another fossil fuels- instead of oil, the dependence on natural oil increases, while dependency on oil decreases. With the changes in energy policies in Turkey since the 2000s, it has begun to shift to renewable energy sources and the establishment of nuclear power plants.

    Keywords: Oil, Oil crisis, Natural gas, Primary energy supply, Primary energy demand, Energy use.

    Pages: 275 – 291 | Full PDF Paper
  2. A Heuristic Derivation of a Summation Formula Involving Euler Numbers

    Thomas J. Osler

    Mathematics Department, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028.

    Pages: 292 – 295 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Subdirect Products of Rings without *-Reversible Elements

    Wafaa Mohammed Fakieh

    Department of Mathematics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Abstract: A left (right) zero divisor a ∈ R is called right (left) *-reversible if ax = 0(xa = 0), for x ∈ R, x ≠ 0, then xa* = 0(a*x = 0). In this note we prove that a *-prime involution ring is a *-compressible if and only if it has no *-reversible element. Moreover, we show that semiprime ring with involution R is a subdirect product of ring without *-reversible elements if and only if R is *-compressible. Several results related to *-compressible ring are obtained.

    Keywords: *-reversible element, *-compressible ring.

    Pages: 296 – 301 | Full PDF Paper
  4. On the Application of Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations to a Laplace Transform-based Cryptographic Process

    Roberto P. Briones

    School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, 62200, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    Abstract: Hiwarekar [4] introduced a cryptographic scheme which made use of the Laplace transform of the Taylor series of a C^∞ function 𝑡^𝑛𝑓(𝑘𝑡), in the most general sense. However, the functional form more commonly used in literature is 𝑡^𝑛𝑒^𝑘𝑡 mainly due to computational convenience. To transmit an encoded message, the parameters n, k, and f(t) are specified in advance and sent securely. This paper extends the encoding to functions of the form 𝑃(𝑡)𝑒^𝑘𝑡 , where P(t) is an nth degree polynomial with positive integral coefficients, and recognizes the role this function takes as a unique solution to a nonhomogeneous differential equation. Consequently, the representation of all the parameters through a single differential equation and the additional complexity it brings strengthens the security of the ciphertext..

    Keywords: Taylor series, non-homogeneous differential equation, particular solution, plaintext, ciphertext.

    Pages: 302 – 307 | Full PDF Paper