1. Why Should Indonesia Develop Nuclear Power?

    Muhammad Busyairi

    West Lombok Government; Jln.Sukarno-Hatta No 1, 83361, Gerung, Indonesia. Completed Master in Public Administration (Policy) at Flinders University, South Australia in August 2019.

    Abstract: Energy policy in Indonesia has relatively not supported the efforts to cope with climate change. The amount of carbon-dioxide (CO2) increased by the use of coal, oil and natural gases. Indonesia with poupulation more than 260 million needs much amount of electricity supply. While most of the energy source is from fossil fuels sources such as coal, oil, and gas, the need for energy increases gradually. However, the reliability of the electricity supply is questionable with many protests due to rolling blackouts. One of the most promising alternatives to cope with energy demands and greenhouse gas emission is by developing nuclear power plants. Ironically, although Indonesia has planned to develop nuclear power since 1950s, it has not been really developed till nowadays for some reasons. This research by using a qualitative approach and based on data taken from books, e-books, journal articles, and governments’ documents aims to analyze the need for building nuclear energy in Indonesia. This research has four findings and suggestions: (1) nuclear power is the best option for Indonesia because it is safe, can meet energy demands, and economical; (2) nuclear power is the best option to mitigate and adapt global warming as suggested by Giddens and eco-modernists since it is environmentally friendly; (3) while the fear of lay people towards nuclear power development is the true fear because of unknowingness, the educated opponents and political elites are “playing the politics of fear” to bring pessimistic and despair; and (4) the Government of Indonesia should not hesitate to make policy to develop nuclear power because it has been widely supported by Indonesian public.

    Keywords: nuclear power, climate change, eco-modernist, politics of fear.

    Pages: 155 – 170 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Detection of Mercury Levels in Some Cosmetic Products Marketed In Khartoum, Sudan

    Khadiga Eltegani1, Dhia Eldin Elhag2

    1. Graduated from faculty of pharmacy, University of Medical Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
    2. Associate Professor in Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.


    Background: Because of the widespread use of cosmetic products, many studies were reported for the determination of mercury (Hg) metal in these products using different methods and instruments.  Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of Hg in a number of the most widely used cosmetic products marketed in Khartoum, Sudan. Additionally, the study also aims at comparing the Hg level detected in some selected samples with the standard limit value set by The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA).

    Study design: Samples of the most common and popular brands of cosmetic products (n=46) were collected from different markets in Khartoum, Sudan. Samples were categorized under eight main groups, viz: facial powder, mascara, eyeliner, eye shadows, lipsticks, eyebrows powders, foundations, and facial soaps.

    Method: A weight of 100 mg was weighed from the collected samples and was tested using a Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA) device, using the integrated sequence of thermal decomposition, catalyst conversion, amalgamation.

    Results: Hg concentrations in the measured 60% of the studied samples were found to have Hg level below the limit stated by The United States Food and Drugs Administration (US FDA), which is less than 1 ppm. Where 40% of the samples were having Hg level above 1 ppm. The most significant trend was for (Yoko) soap which has Hg concentration of 10.56 ppm. The  (Anastasia) eyebrows powder Hg concentration was detected to be  (0.07 ppm).

    Conclusion: The results showed that the analyzed cosmetic products had Hg at a detectable level, and some samples showed levels above the allowed limit (1ppm). Such high levels can cause different types of health problems.

    Keywords: Cosmetic products, mercury levels, heavy metals, Sudan.

    Pages: 171 – 175 | Full PDF Paper