Impact of Integrated Programmes for Households Consumption Expenditure: Empirical Evidence from Northern Ethiopia
Fekadu Nigussie Deresse1 and Germán Guido Calfat2
1. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
2. University Antwerp, Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB)
Abstract: We examine factors that drive households’ decision to participate in Village Saving and Loan Association (VSLA), driving forces that determine consumption expenditure, and evaluate the impact of integrated programmes on households’ consumption expenditure. Endogenous switching regression model is fitted to account for the heterogeneity in the decision to participate or not, and for unobserved characteristics of households. Saving, borrowing and asset holdings are the main drivers behind participation in VSLA. Participant’s consumption expenditure is positively and significantly determined by asset holdings, income, male-headedness of the household and highland dwellers; while for non-participant’s labour and income are significant and positive determinants. Participation in the integrated programmes increases consumption expenditure, and participated households benefit the most even the non-participated were to participate.
Keywords: Endogenous switching regression, Integrate Programmes, Heterogeneity, Village Saving and Loan Association, Ethiopia.
Pages: 265 – 284 | Full PDF Paper
A. Torres-Hernandez*,a, F. Brambila-Paz†,b, P. M. Rodrigo‡,c,d, and E. De-la-Vega§,c
a. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science – UNAM, Mexico
b. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science – UNAM, Mexico
c. Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Panamericana – Aguascalientes, Mexico
d. Centre for Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment (CEAEMA), University of Jaen, Spain.
Abstract: A nonlinear algebraic equation system of 5 variables is numerically solved, which allows modeling the behavior of the temperatures and the efficiencies of a hybrid solar receiver, which in simple terms is the combination of a photovoltaic system with a thermoelectric system. In addition, a way to reduce the previous system to a nonlinear system of only 2 variables is presented. Naturally, reducing algebraic equation systems of dimension N to systems of smaller dimensions has the main advantage of reducing the number of variables involved in a problem, but the analytical expressions of the systems become more complicated. However, to minimize this disadvantage, an iterative method that does not explicitly depend on the analytical complexity of the system to be solved is used. A fractional iterative method, valid for one and several variables, that uses the properties of fractional calculus, in particular the fact that the fractional derivatives of constants are not always zero, to find solutions of nonlinear systems is presented.
Keywords: Iteration Function, Order of Convergence, Fractional Derivative, Parallel Chord Method, Hybrid Solar Receiver.
Pages: 285 – 299 | Full PDF Paper