1. The Research, Development and Application of the Fermentation Accelerator, a New Material for Edible Mushroom Cultivation on Unsterilized Substrate

    Han Shenghua, Ye Caiyun, Han Hongyi

    Abstract: The fermentation accelerator is a product resulted from the research on the differences in biological characters among various fungi. The purpose of the research was to develop a substance that can accelerate fermentation of the substrate, thus realize sterilization at a lower temperature and in a shorter time period, as well as reduce consumption of energy, cost and labor. We found that by using it in the traditional sterilization method, the fermentation accelerator could help produce ammonia and beneficial micro-organisms to accelerate the death of harmful micro-organisms like weed moulds at a temperature between 70 and 80℃ in 5-7 hours, realizing the purpose of sterilization, The production of 10,000 bags of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) or Auricularia auricular -judae (Black wood ear) could save 720 kgs of coal and 2 labor forces and increase the yield by over 10%. Our conclusion was that edible mushrooms could not only be cultivated on sterilized substrate, but also on unsterilized substrate with the help of the fermentation accelerator, which could bring about considerable economic and ecological benefits. This achievement passed the expert appraisal of scientific and technological administration sector and over 2 billion bags were spread and used in 26 provinces (regions, municipalities) across China.

    Keywords: The fermentation accelerator, edible mushrooms, cultivation on unsterilized substrate, new material.

    Pages: 297 – 305 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Estimating The Religion of Countries According to Shapes of The Flags Using Support Vector Machines and Kernel Methods

    Taha Eren Sarnıç


    Support vector machines are a set of related supervised learning method used for classification and regression. In simple words, given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, a SVM (Support Vector Machines) algorithm builds a model that predicts whether a new example falls into one category or the other. Intuitively, an SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that the examples of the separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible. New examples are then mapped into that same space and predicted to belong to a category based on which side of the gap they fall on.

    The categorization of the new examples are made with hyperplane. As it is seen in below, two classes are seperated with multiple straight lines.

    Pages: 306 – 311 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Room Temperature Amine Surface Modification of Synthesized Microporous Carbon Spheres

    Mohammed Salisu Musa, Mohd Marsin Sanagi, Hadi Nur and Nor Suhaila Mohamad Hanapi

    Abstract: Carbon spheres (CSs) were hydrothermally synthesized using sucrose as precursor. The synthesized CSs were activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) until a substantial micropore structure was achieved. The surfaces of the microporous carbon spheres (MCSs) were further modified with amine groups at room temperature using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nitrogen Adsorption measurements were used to characterize the CSs, MCSs and the reaction product of MCSs with 3-APTES (3-APTES-MCSs). Results indicate the presence of Si-O-Si and -NH2 groups on the surfaces of the 3-APTES-MCSs. The surface modified product can be utilized as an adsorbent for the extraction of nitrogen-containing contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) from environmental samples.

    Keywords: Microporous carbon spheres, hydrothermal reaction, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, sucrose, surface modification.

    Pages: 312 – 319 | Full PDF Paper
  4. In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Isolation of Natural Products from Callus Tissues of Salvia santolinifolia (Boiss)

    Tour Jan, Beena Naqvi and Raiha Qadri

    Abstract: Method for mass multiplication of callus of Salvia santolinifolia by nodal explants was investigated by optimizing the concentration and combinations of different plant growth regulators in MS medium. Nodal explants could be stimulated to form callus on MS medium supplemented with 1-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l). Large scale multiplication of callus was achieved on MS medium containing NAA (0.3 mg/l) plus N6 Benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.3 mg/l) plus N6-(2-isopentyl)-adenine (2iP) (1.0 mg/l). The phytochemical investtigation of callus lead to the isolation of b-Sitosterol and Stigmasterol compounds.

    Keywords: Callus, mass multiplication, salvia, Lamiaceae.

    Pages: 320 – 328 | Full PDF Paper