1. Symbolic Regression of Inter-Atomic Potentials via Genetic Programming

    Abdel Kenoufi, Kholmirzo T. Kholmurodov

    Abstract: One presents methodology and algorithm to find inter-atomic potentials for different kinds of material systems. One uses ab initio potential energy calculations and symbolic regression using genetic programming, which is a generalization of genetic algorithms.

    Keywords: Inter-atomic potentials, Molecular Dynamics, Ab Initio calculations, Density Functional Theory, Kohn-Sham scheme, Evolutionary Programming, Symbolic Regression.

    Pages: 1 – 15 | Full PDF Paper
  2. IL-13 Polymorphism (IL-13 rs1800925 (-1055) (C/T) is Associated with Severe Hepatic Fibrosis in Human Schistosomiasis

    Siddig A.Rahoud, Adil Mergani, Ammar H. Khamis, Osman K. Saeed, Qurashi Mohamed-Ali, Christophe C., Alain J. Dessein, and Nasr Eldin M. A. Elwali

    Abstract: An association study of a cohort of 177 Sudanese patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni {82 (46%) males and 95 (54%) females} was conducted to investigate the correlation of four polymorphisms {IFN-g rs2069705 (C/T), IFN-g R1 rs11914 (G/T), rs1327474 (A/G), and IL-13 rs1800925 (-1055) (C/T)} to the regression and progression of liver fibrosis 39 months after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Regression and progression phenotypes were evaluated by ultrasound. DNA from patients infected with S. mansoni was extracted, purified and amplified by PCR. Allelic typing was done using RFLP, primer extension reaction, DHPLC, and allelic discrimination assays (TAQ-MAN). SDS (Sequence Detection Systems) software was used for genotyping. There was an association between IL-13 rs1800925 T allele and the low grades of periportal fibrosis (PPF) (P = 0.02). No significant association was found between three polymorphisms (IFN-g rs2069705 (C/T) P = 0.5, rs1327474 (A/G) P = 0.3 and IFN-g R1 rs11914 (G/T), and PPF as response to PZQ. We conclude that IL-13 rs1800925 T allele is protective against PPF (P = 0.02).

    Keywords: Periportal fibrosis (PPF), Regression, Progression, Praziquantel (PZQ), Polymorphisms.

    Pages: 11 – 26 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Stimulation of Prolactin Synthesis by β- Glucan via Dectin-1 Receptors in GH3/B6 Cells

    Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Houri Sepehri, Ladan Delphi

    Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that was originally named for its ability to promote lactation. In the present study, the mechanism of beta-glucan effect on GH3/B6 cells in the synthesis of prolactin has been investigated. In order to study the synthesis and secretion of prolactin, GH3 cell lines which is derived from pituitary tumors was used. Furthermore, the expressions of β-glucan dectin-1 receptors on these cells were studied. The intracellular prolactin levels were assayed by ELISA in the presence of 5, 150 and 250 μgr/ml of β-glucan for a period of 48 hours. TRH (50 nM) was used as positive control and the specific effect of beta-glucan was assessed by using dextran (150 μgr/ml). We also measured the expression of dectin-1 receptor in GH3/B6 cells. Our result showed that the higher concentrations of beta-glucan (150-250 ug/ml) significantly stimulate PRL synthesis. Most notably, for the first time we showed GH3/B6 cells express low levels of Dectin-1 receptor which greatly induced by beta glucan high concentrations. Therefore, β-glucan may induce PRL secretion throughout enhanced expression of Dectin-1 receptor.

    Keywords: β-glucan, Dectin-1, GH3/B6 cells, Prolactin.

    Pages: 27 – 35 | Full PDF Paper
  4. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk, White Cheese and Yoghurt From Ankara, Turkey Markets

    Deniz Yurtsever SARICA, Okan HAS, Serpil TAŞDELEN, Üstün EZER

    Abstract: In addition to the wide consumption of milk across age groups, cheese and yoghurt are frequently used in Turkish cuisine. Therefore, the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in dairy foods is a significant problem for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and levels of AFM1 in milk, cheese and yoghurt samples in Ankara, Turkey. The AFM1 levels of the samples were determined using immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by high performance liquid chromatography for separation and fluorescence detection. A total of 70 dairy products consisting of 24 UHT pasteurized milk samples, 27 white cheese samples and 19 yoghurt samples were analyzed for AFM1 during the first 6 months of 2013. Eighty-three percent of the milk samples, 92.6% of the cheese samples and 89.5% of the yoghurt samples were contaminated with AFM1. The levels of AFM1 in the samples ranged from 7.3 to 107.2 ng/kg. Only 5 yoghurt samples and none of the milk or cheese samples exceeded the safety limits established by the Turkish Food Codex of 50 ng/kg for milk and yoghurt and 250 ng/kg for cheese. The survey results showed the necessity of regular monitoring for the occurrence of AFM1 in dairy products.

    Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, diary products, HPLC-FLD, IAC.

    Pages: 36 – 49 | Full PDF Paper
  5. Evaluation of the Schistosomicidal Potential of Guttiferone – A Obtained from Garcinia brasiliensis´s Seed

    Giulliano Vilela Barros, Aline Pereira Castro, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Neusa Araújo Pereira, Naira Ferreira Anchieta, Matheus Siqueira Silva, Marcelo Henrique dos Santos, Jaqueline Pereira Januário, Raquel Lopes Martins Souza, Marcos José Marques

    Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a serious public health issue in developing countries mainly from the African, Asian and South American continents. Praziquantel is the only medication used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. Such fact justifies the search of therapeutic alternatives for the disease, presenting shorter course of treatment, lower occurrence of side effects and lack of resistance of the parasite to the compound. In the present study, it was evaluated the schistosomicidal activity of ethanolic extract of the Garcinia brasiliensis´s seed (EES); hexane (FHS), ethyl acetate (FAES) and aqueous (FAS) fractions, obtained by partition; and a pure constituent isolated from this species: the benzophenone guttiferone-A (gut-A), on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, using in vitro tests. Mortality (ED90) and damage on the membrane surface and excretory system activity were noted at concentrations of 98.0; 97.0; 89.0 and 18.0 µg/mL for the ESS; FHS; FAES and gut-A, respectively. Whereas for gut-A, these data were confirmed by Hoechst 33258 and Resorufin fluorescent probes. The results obtained indicate the gut-A as a promising natural compound, as in vitro assays provide sustainability to carry out in vivo tests, in order to search new drugs for the treatment of this disease.

    Keywords: Benzophenones, Garcinia brasiliensis, Guttiferone-A, Organic compounds, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosomiasis.

    Pages: 50 – 63 | Full PDF Paper