1. Separation of Medical Nanopowder from the Natural Minerals by Supercritical CO2



    Nano-sized medical raw material has been derived from the medical quality natural spar (CaCO3) without the use of chemical salt. The theoretical basis of the method consists in the transferring and keeping CO2 to a supercritical state during thermo-chemical processing of the spar at 900-950°C. The supercritical CO2 has a form of solid solution that holds the properties of both gas and solid. Afterwards, with dissolving it in the animal milk, the solution is equalized by the solvent’s expansion with the decrease of temperature and creates amorphous crystal nanopowder. The size of the resultant product determined by both factors.

    Keywords: Supercritical CO2, saturated gas, nanopowder, spar, amorphous crystal.

    Pages: 207 – 214 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Effects of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives and Pomegranate Juice on Male Rat kidney Injuries Induced by Diethylnitrosamine and Carbon tetrachloride

    Asmaa F. Hamouda, Nadia Z. Shaban, Iman M. Talaat

    Abstract: The kidney possesses most of the common xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and is thus able to make an important contribution to the body’s metabolism of drugs and foreign compounds. The effect of pyrimidine derivatives 6-amino-2-thiouracil (ATU), 2-thiouracil (TU) and 5-flurouracil (5FU), and pomegranate juice (PJ) on kidney nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation (DNAF), caspase-3 levels and kidney function tests in rats treated with diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and carbon tetra chloride CCl4 was studied. The effect of PJ on rat not treated with DEN and CCl4 was studied also. Administration of rats with DEN and CCl4 caused an elevation in the levels of NO, MDA, DNAF, caspase-3 and kidney function tests, compared to the control. Treatment of rats with PJ pre, during, and post DEN and CCl4 administration improved kidney function and decreased the levels of NO, MDA, DNAF, and caspase-3 activities better than that in DEN-5FU, DEN- ATU, DEN-TU groups compared to the DEN group, indicates that PJ reduced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEN and CCl4 better than that in 5FU, ATU, TU. Administration of healthy rats with PJ only for 5 weeks not induced oxidative stress and apoptosis for kidney tissues. Treatment with 5FU after DEN and CCl4 administration showed severe toxicity which was higher than that induced by DEN and CCl4.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, diethylnitrosamine, DNA fragmentation, thiouracil, fluorouracil, pomegranate juice.

    Pages: 215 – 229 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Social Development and Management Program (SDMP) Among Mining Companies in CarCanMadCarLan and Its Impact

    Odinah Landero Cuartero

    Abstract: This study presents the findings undertaken to assess the extent of implementation of Social Development and Management Program (SDMP) among mining companies in CarCanMadCarLan (CCMCL) and its impact to the multi-sector group. This study employed the descriptive research design where quantitative data gathered through a questionnaire was substantiated with qualitative data gathered through interview. The participants were purposive chosen to represent the social, economic, health, education, and environment sectors. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD Test. Based on the findings, among the five multi-sectoral groups, Education Sector received the highest mean whereas Environment Sector obtained the least in the assessment of SDMP implementation and its perceived impact. The study concludes that mining operations in CarCanMadCarLan provide positive and negative impacts. The positive impact can be observed in employment generation while the negative impacts can be seen in the environmental destruction and biodiversity degradation. This can be attributed to the extent of implementation of SDMP which cannot be considered as par excellent.

    Keywords: Mining Industries; Local Communities; Multi-Sectoral Impact (for Global Issues); SDMP.

    Pages: 230 – 240 | Full PDF Paper