Rodrigo M. S. Silva, Amanda L. M. S. Melo and Filipe S. Duarte
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Alagoas, Brazil.
Abstract: The importance of developing efficient and sustainable alternatives to the high toxicity products in the civil construction market is one of the most relevant topics in Materials Science and Engineering worldwide. Within this reality are the additives for concrete and mortars, which despite being widely used products, are still produced without taking into consideration the environmental impacts that their substances cause to the environment. One type of additive that is increasingly in focus in the construction industry is the air incorporator to concretes additive type, used to produce the so-called “cellular concrete” that has the specific weight substantially reduced by the additive effect, generating great savings in works that use constructive systems with this type of concrete. The formulation used for the preparation of this type of additive by the industries present in the market is based on toxic materials that attack the environment, such as linear alkylbenzene and miscellaneous materials. Therefore, due to the high toxicity of these compositions, these products generate a high environmental impact when they come into contact with nature. From this reality, the present work proposes to elaborate a process for the development of a bioaddtive incorporating air based on castor oil (Ricinus communis L.), which was collected in the city of Arapiraca-AL, in northeastern Brazil. This process is described through the analysis of physical and chemical properties of the plant and experimental tests and dosages in order to analyze its quality in relation to the standards contained in the literature and thus contribute to the efficient, economical and sustainable evolution of civil construction.
Keywords: Sustainability, Concrete, Additives, Castor oil
Pages: 73 – 81 | Full PDF Paper
Mohamed S. Sheded*1, Marwa A. Masoud2, Hanaa A. Mansour2, Eman M. Aly3 and Mona S. Talaat4
1. Corresponding author: EVA Corporation for Cosmetics, Cairo, Egypt.
2. Pharmacology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.
3. Biophysics and Laser Science, Visual science Department-Research institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.
4. Biophysics group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Abstract: Photosensitivity is a common side effect of ciprofloxacin that appears after exposure to UV radiations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the damaging effect of ultraviolet-A radiation (3.96kJ/m2; 60min, 45min, and 30min) on the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin (100mg/kg; p.o; daily for 7 consecutive days) in Esch. coli infected rats. Photosensitivity was induced due to exposure of the dorsal side of shaved rats to UV-A lamp radiation. The adverse effects related to skin photosensitivity and hepatic toxicity were evaluated and the protective role of Vit. C (180mg/kg; daily for 7consecutive days) against UV-A induced oxidative stress was clarified. Our results showed that UV-A has induced skin tissue injury in rats denoted by skin scoring results (redness, edema, hemorrhage, oozing and shrinkage), and induced oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in the skin homogenate and altered total leukocyte count in serum, and liver function parameters such as serum albumin and total protein levels. Photosensitivity criteria induced by ciprofloxacin were bound to be proportional to UV-A exposure time. However, oral administered Vit. C exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by normalizing skin contents of lipid peroxide (MDA), glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and the total leukocytic count (TLC). Moreover, by testing serum total protein and albumin levels were they increased, whereas the relative organs weights of spleen and thymus were normalized by Vit.C. These results were confirmed to histopathological alterations in skin result. The present study concludes that orally administered Vit.C has prophylactic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity on exposure to UV-A radiation in Esch. coli systematic infected rats.
Keywords: Ciprofloxacin, ultraviolet A radiation, Photosensitivity, Vit.C, Rats.
Pages: 82 – 95 | Full PDF Paper
Mardin Artuklu University, Medical Laboratory Techniques, Vocational Higher School of Healthcare Studies, 47200 Mardin, Turkey.
Abstract: The widespread use of nano materials leads to more interest in the methods used to obtain these materials. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract obtained from the green shells of artemisia absinthium in the case of waste. Reaction solution color change and UV-vis spectra confirmed reduction of silver ions to generate silver atoms. During the synthesis process, functional groups that participated in the reduction and were responsible for the reduction were examined by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis. SEM-EDX analyzes showed that AgNPs had a global appearance and had a large silver element composition. The XRD results showed a 14.58 nm Crystalline size and the TGA-DTA analysis showed the degradation temperatures of AgNPs. These nanoparticles have been shown to show effective anti-microbial activity of the AgNPs on the gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative Escherichia coli and Candida albicans yeast. As a resultThe silver nanoparticles (AgNP) showed relatively higher antibacterial activity.
Pages: 96 – 103 | Full PDF Paper