1. Peri-urban Mangroves of Dar es Salaam-Tanzania are Highly Vulnerable to Anthropogenic Pressures

    Makemie J. Mabula, Mwita M. Mangora, Christopher A. Muhando

    Institute of Marine Sciences-University of Dar es Salaam. P. O. Box 668- Zanzibar.

    Abstract: Increasing demand for socio-economic services and infrastructure developments, exert multiple pressures on coastal and marine resources, especially mangroves that occur on the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. The study therefore assessed and mapped the anthropogenic threats and vulnerability of mangroves at Kunduchi and Mbweni. The threats were identified and validated through field observations before they were mapped in Google Earth (GE) images. Major threats were ranked on the basis of their persistence and proportional area of mangrove forest modified. The mangroves were also ranked on the basis of their proximity to the major threats. These threat and mangrove ranks were then spatially integrated using ArcGIS to develop mangrove vulnerability maps. Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), proxy indicator for mangrove vegetation health, was analysed from 2014 Landsat 8 image in QGIS. GE images of 2003-2014 were analysed in ArcGIS for mangrove area change detection. The major human threats at Kunduchi were the salt works and settlement, whereas at Mbweni were settlement and trampling. Analysis of the 2014 GE images indicated that Kunduchi and Mbweni had 157.3 and 42.1 ha of mangroves, respectively. About 40% and 31% of the mangroves at Kunduchi and Mbweni respectively, were vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. There was a net gain of 12.0 ha at Kunduchi and 0.7 ha at Mbweni during the period of 2003-2014. Effective control measures are required to regulate human pressures and protect these mangroves. Promotion of incentive based conservation schemes like community-based payment for ecosystem services is one of the plausible options to explore.

    Keywords: Mangroves, Athropogenic pressure and Vulnerability.

    Pages: 141 – 172 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Three-Year Results of Experiment Aimed to Suppression Gray Mold (Botryotinia Fuckeliana) Using Software of Meterological Station

    Gordana Forgić, Vladimir Sabadoš, Gordana Mrdak, Jelena Perenčević, Tatjana Veselinović

    PSS Sombor, Staparski put 35, 25000 Sombor, Serbia.


    Strawberry is species attacked by a large number of disease and pests, one of the most important diseases which significantly affects the yield and fruit quality is Botryotinia fuckeliana, inducer gray mold. For its suppression fungicides  are used by application in  practice based mainly on developmental stages of strawberries without taking into account the biology of pathogens and weather conditions. That influences the occurrence and development of pathogens.

    The aim of testing is  to check the software that is based on recording the temperature, the length of wetting leaf and which, based on these data, shows the risk of a possible realization of pathogen infection by Botryotinia fuckeliana. Our objective was to determine the optimal time to protect strawberries from gray mold in relation to height of risk that software provides and phenophases of strawberry and thus reduce the number of  treatments.

    Keywords: strawberry, gray mold, meteorological station.

    Pages: 173 – 179 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Efficiency Improvements in Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plant Through the Adoption of Heat Reclaimer

    R. Blasetti1, C. Sommariva2, S. Govindarajan3

    1.Sr. Process Engineer, ILF Consulting Engineer, Al Reem Island, 73250, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    2.Managing Director, ILF Consulting Engineer, Al Reem Island, 73250, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    3.Power Gen. Department Manager, ILF Consulting Engineer, Al Reem Island, 73250, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.


    Due to the large seasonal difference between water and power demand matching power and water generation has been a general problem in the Middle East and has been the cause of several inefficiencies in combined power and desalination plant operation for long periods during the year particularly when power demand is low.

    In particular while power demand is mainly dictated by the seasonal air conditioning load, it is well known that the water demand remains almost constant for the whole year.

    In this situation the unbalance between the heat required by the thermal desalination plant and the heat available from the power plant becomes unbalance and to maintain the heat load for the desalination plant a substantial supplementary firing is generally required.

    The paper aims at analyzing the fuel and carbon savings that could be achieved through the implementation of a state of the art heat reclaimer and the possible configurations that could be achieved. This paper also aims at providing an indicative financial return that justifies the financial viability of this concept.

    Keywords: Combined Cycle Plant, Heat Reclaimer, HRSG, Thermal Desalination Plant, CO2 savings.

    Pages: 180 – 194 | Full PDF Paper