Damte Balcha Gadana
Department of Plant Science, College of Agricultural sciences, Wolita Sodo University –Dawro Tarcha campus, Tarcha Ethiopia.
Abstract: This study paper assesses causes and consequence of food in security as well as its determinants in Dawuro zone with in particular reference to Loma Bossa District. It was focus on hindrance factors of food security mainly with large family size, fragmented farming land, illiteracy and use tradition farming method in Loma Bossa District. The studied data requires collecting reliable information regarding food insecurity; data was collected from both primary and secondary data source. The primary data was collected from those individual which are highly affected by food insecurity through structured questionnaires. Regarding secondary data was collect from different research papers that have do on food in security and also the data was collect from relevant institution such as Loma Bossa district and Dawuro zone agriculture and rural development Office as well as published and unpublished data sources.
Keywords: Determinants, Consequences, Food Insecurity, Case, Loma Bossa.
Pages: 23 – 35 | Full PDF Paper
The Occurrence of Creeping Plants in Plantations: A Dilemma of Cork Oak Forest Regeneration in Tunisia
Boutheina STITI 1, Ali KHORCHANI 2, Amar ELHAJ3, Abdelhamid KHALDI 4
National Research Institute of Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry, University of Carthage, BP10, 2080, Ariana, Tunisia.
Abstract: As natural regeneration and direct sowing have been considered difficult, planting was adopted as a solution to attenuate the decline of cork oak forest. However, Tunisian planted cork oaks showed a troublesome phenomenon characterized by the presence of creeping plants which has a negative influence on height growth and cork production. This study aimed to estimate, for the first time in Tunisia, the percent of creeping cork oaks among those planted between 1995 and 2008 and to make a diagnosis in order to propose solutions to this problem. The percentage of creeping plants was determined in 2014 within 35 plots installed in 13 perimeters, situated in northern Tunisia. Crown diameter and total height were measured for the whole plants. Moreover, the creeping plants were were distinghished and inventoried in categories according to shoot ramification. The average survival rate, estimated at 55±30%, varied between 0% and 100% depending on perimeter. The average percentage of creeping plants reached 82% ranging between 0 and 100%, which reflects the extent of this phenomenon. Furthermore, 64.3% of creeping plants were classified in category I (1 main stem) where as 12.41% and 23.29% were classified in categories II (2 ramifications) and III (3 or more ramifications), respectively. The percent of creeping plants was negatively correlated to altitude and positively correlated to soil hardnes; indicateing high grazing and low possibility for plants to grow.
Keywords: cork oak, creeping plants, shoot growth, overgrazing, Mediteranean climate.
Pages: 36 – 46 | Full PDF Paper
Seismological Service Department of the Institute of Natural Resources of the Nakhchivan Branch of Anas, Heydar Aliyev Avenue 35, Az-6719, Nakhchivan City, Nakhchivan.
Abstract: The article provides depth divisions bordering the Araz megazon, which includes the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The seismically active areas of the region are adapted to the large tectonic faults of Anatolia, the Caucasus and Iran, are more seismically active, and the hearth zones are located at the intersections of faults in the Caucasian and anti-Caucasian directions. The presence and seismicity, tension and deformation of the complex tectonic structure of the region, the movement of the mixed block structure to the north are regulated by the rigid Arabian plate, which enters the area intensively wedge-shaped. Seismological surveys are carried out in the territory of the autonomous republic on the basis of an observation network consisting of 4 satellite communication systems, digital telemetric seismic stations manufactured by “Kinemetrics” (USA). Earthquakes are processed using Apple’s “Antelope 5.6” software. Local, near and far earthquakes, explosions, volcanoes, landslides are processed through the network of telemetry stations. The catalog of earthquakes is compiled on the basis of data from telemetry stations. This catalog defines the parameters of earthquake centers (T, φ, λ, h and ml). The territory of Nakhchivan AR is divided into Ordubad, Nakhchivan, Shahbuz, Sadarak blocks, which are seismically tectonically separated by pan-Caucasian and transverse faults, and earthquakes of magnitude ml ≥4 are observed at the borders of the blocks.
Keywords: Earthquake, tectonic blocks, fractures, seismicity.
Pages: 47 – 51 | Full PDF Paper