1. The Effects of High Temperature Regime on Cherry Tomato Plant Growth and Development When Cultivated in Different Growing Substrates Systems

    Andre Nduwimana1, Shen Ming Wei2

    1. Institut de Pédagogie Appliquée, Univesité du Burundi, B.P. 5223 Bujumbura, Burundi.
    2. College of Biosystem Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.

    Abstract: In the southern regions of China, it is very hot and relative humidity is high during summer. Similar conditions also prevail inside the greenhouse. In this experiment, it was observed that when roof ventilations were closed at noon, the greenhouse temperature could rise as high as 50oC. This resulted in serious plant injury and in certain cases, death of plants. The investigation is a comparative study of heat stress on cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var.cerasiforme) cultivated in different substrate systems during summer time. The study was undertaken in a glasshouse from June to September 2007 in Hangzhou (Zhejiang Province). Our objective was to assess the critical temperature at a precise growth stage, and thereafter propose an appropriate cultivation system which can mitigate the thermal stress during summer. Growth was markedly related to the growing medium; the effect of temperature was less noticeable at seedling stage. Highly significant differences in the leaf expansion with temperature were noticed, stressed tomato plants showed a significant decrease in leaf area. High temperatures critically affected the plant development especially during flowering stage.

    Keywords: cherry tomato, substrate systems, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var.cerasiforme.

    Pages: 1 – 17 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Unitary Symmetry of Atoms, Molecules and Codons. Part 1. Introduction to the Unitary Symmetry for Everyone

    Vladimir Komarov

    Department of Chemistry, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia.


    You want to study less and learn more? You want to remember less and understand more? You would like to explore a little bit of physics and chemistry, but to understand the biology, history, geography, economics, statistics? … If ΣYES ≥ 1 follow me

    When we build a house, first we are building a foundation. Imagine a house without a foundation can be easy. It is cave. You want to continue to live in a cave? You want to use the cave as a livelihood? … Do you want to die young, like our ancestors died? If Σ NO ≥ 1, follow me

    Symmetry is the foundation of knowledge. Many of you have no idea about this and exists, getting the pleasure from everyday events and life in general. But this is because very few people knew, they know now and will know in the future the chain and the correct sequence of laws and regularities arising from symmetry.

    However, many of you have heard about the geometric symmetry. You come across on the subway with symmetrical bodies every day and using the symmetrical objects you drive to work. But if you “to dig” deeper, you can discover asymmetric heart, not symmetrically located one liver, etc. These are the manifestations of the Broken symmetry. Broken geometric symmetry (symmetry in a system of geometric coordinates) is the impelling reason for Evolution, a stimulus to find reasons for the change or save the FORM of the object.

    But besides the geometric coordinates the parametric coordinates exists. This is the quantitative characteristics, of the object or process. Examples: weight, number of particles, the energy of electron detachment, the dielectric constant and the binding energy of atoms in the molecule, boiling point, solubility …

    The role of the object in this case is played by a specially selected set of objects (Hyperobject). Symmetry in the parameter space at first glance is not visible, but it is easily possible to find the ruler with the values of the measured parameter. It manifests itself in the form of saving the difference between separate parts of the Hyperobject (by the specially selected objects). Since the parameters of the object reflects its essence, the symmetry in the parameter space can be regarded as a reflection of the properties and the provision of the conservative element of Evolution.

    Broken Parametric Symmetry – it is an occasion to reflect on the chemical purity of the original elements and possible distortions in the hierarchical intervals energy interactions between the original components of combinatorial elements which assembled Hyperobject.

    The symmetry of this phenomenon of nature, clean, simple and accessible to everyone. This is a source to build a foundation of knowledge. It did not elaborate by mathematical turbid suspensions.

    The name “Parametric Symmetry” is more understandable to the general public in my opinion, but never before consumed. The name “Unitary symmetry” is widespread in theoretical community – a single, universal … Paying tribute to the founding father and the discoverer of this type of symmetry for elementary particles – M. Gell-Mann, I decided to leave in the title of his first-born value.

    This article is the first in a series of papers devoted virtually unknown to chemists (and even more so to biologists) phenomenon of Symmetries and Unitary symmetry, in particular. That is why I decided to start with a simple explanation of the physical meaning of this kind of symmetry. Then followed the second part, (who understand the theory of groups or want to “dive deeper”) – theoretical The next part will focus on the representation of the unitary symmetry applications in genetics, and other fields of natural science. Separate part will be devoted to the creation of databases of physical, chemical and biological data..

    I want to emphasize the fact that the idea of Symmetries underlie not only the various scientific disciplines. They are important for school educational disciplines which are extremely overcrowded by information. The introduction of concepts of Symmetry in school courses in physics, chemistry and biology will allow to compress the information flow to the level of study of the principles: Knowing some principles easily compensates ignorance of some facts (Claude Adrien Helvétius).

    Keywords: geometric symmetry, unitary symmetry, homology, combinatorics, invariants for molecules.

    Pages: 18 – 27 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Microarray Gene Expression Data-Based Bioinformatics Method for the Diagnosis of Male Hypertension

    Nazli Ucunoglu1, Arinze Akutekwe2, Turgay Isbir3

    1. Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Yeditepe University, Kayısdag, 34755, Istanbul, Turkey.
    2. Bio-Health Informatics Research Group, Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, LE1 9BH, Leicester,UK.
    3. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Kayısdag, 34755, Istanbul, Turkey.

    Abstract: Hypertension is a chronic medical condition that the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Hypertension can lead to damaged organs, as well as several illnesses, such as renal failure (kidney failure), aneurysm, heart failure, stroke, or heart attack. In our investigation, ten subsets were designed for male hypertension patient and control group. In this paper we apply t-test and entropy feature selection methods using 2fold and 5fold cross validation as our model selection methods with K-Nearest neighbour classifier. Among these groups, 3 number of biomarkers set were chosen (1,3,9) for 4 tables (t-test; 2-fold and 5-fold; entropy; 2-fold and 5-fold). From these biomarker sets which has the highest accuracy which is the measurement used for the classifier assessment was analysed and taken to the best models for each sub-set table. Each sub-set tables were analysed with each other and we tried to find the most appropriate biomarker. The defined biomarker was searched within database in order to find relationship with the illness. Consequently, highly recurrent and highly accurate candidate genes can be further analysed for becoming a biomarker.  Further analysis (both database and wet study) can be suggested for the highly recurrent genes like Hs. 683236  (null), Hs. 475902, 420541, 656129, 647705 and 657792.

    Keywords: Hypertension, t-test, entropy, K-Nearest neighbour classifier, biomarker.

    Pages: 28 – 34 | Full PDF Paper