1. Two Methods on Rubidium Extraction from Boron Clays

    Bengü Ertan1,2*, Yunus Erdoğan1

    1. Department of Chemistry, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey.

    2. Espiye Vocational School, Giresun University, Turkey.

    Abstract: Two methods were emerged as a result of the extraction studies of the boron clay wastes (CW) in Emet/Kütahya region in Turkey and they were presented as a flow sheet. The first one was direct acid leaching process with H2SO4 and the other was roasting operation then acid leaching with HF. 43.8% of rubidium extraction was achieved the direct H2SO4 leaching and the rubidium extraction can reach 87.43% under the same mass ratio of CW/CaSO4/CaCO3 at 950°C for an hour then acid leaching with 1 M HF for two hours at room temperature. The two methods were compared and discussed in all their aspects. Although the results are quite different from each other, it has been shown that the sulfuric acid leaching method can also be used as an alternative.

    Keywords: Boron clay wastes, Extraction, Roasting, Leaching, Rubidium.

    Pages: 281 – 291 | Full PDF Paper
  2. The Role of Entrepreneurial and Sustainable Orientation in the performance of the SME’s in Albania


    Faculty of Economy and Agribusiness; Agricultural University of Tirana.

    Abstract: The main issue of the study is the relationship between entrepreneurial and sustainable orientation and how they impact the performance of the business in Albania. Promoting entrepreneurship and creating new businesses, are key factors of this excessive working population. Moreover, knowing that entrepreneurship, in particular (SMEs), tends to be innovative, this may help in finding solutions to several social problems of Albania, such as: economic growth and innovation, higher standards in Education system, more efficient in managing production and trade of products. This means that, pushing for a better performance, based on diversified activities, enables the enterprise to offer a unique way of joint values. Entrepreneurial and sustainable orientation has become a crucial and interesting topic recently for scholars in literature. This study was designed as descriptive and its data gathering method is questionnaire. The questionnaires were addressed to 100 (one-hundred) shareholders of the companies in various industries that are operating in Albania. These findings of the study will allow us to develop a model of business performance of SMEs and to test the hypotheses proposed. The study will have a positive impact because will bring important contributions such as: determining the role of each attribute of entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, pro-activeness and competitive aggressiveness) and sustainable orientation (environmental, social and economic) towards business performance of SMEs in Albania.

    Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, sustainable orientation and business performance.

    Pages: 292 – 306 | Full PDF Paper