1. Study on the Effect of Alcoholic Beverages on the Heart Rate of Daphnia (Daphnia magna)

    Paradela, Immanuel P., Celdran, Pablo Bruno Manuel I., Canalita, Everlita E. and Tarranza, Victoria A.

    Abstract: Alcoholic beverage is any fermented liquor such as wine, beer, or distilled spirit that contains ethyl alcohol or ethanol as intoxicating agent. Daphnia ( Daphnia magna) or water flea is a planktonic crustacean commonly found in canals and other waterways. It has been used as a standard organism for toxicity testing and toxicological reaction to environmental pollutants. The study is concerned on whether the brand and concentration of alcoholic beverages have an effect on the heart rate of Daphnia and verify if these factors can cause a significant difference. Samples of the organism were directly exposed to an aqueous environment with different concentrations of alcohol. The experiment used three different alcoholic beverages at three different concentrations in water. In the control group, no alcohol was added to the water. Results show that exposure of Daphnia to alcohol affects its heart rate. As the concentration of alcohol increases, the heart rate decreases. This observation is true for all the alcoholic beverages used in the experiment.

    Keywords: Toxicity, daphnia, alcoholic beverages, heart rate.

    Pages: 215 – 221 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Influence Additives of Clayed on Characteristic Refractory Masses of Dinas

    Eminov A.A., Kadyrova Z.R., Abdullaeva R.I., Eminov A.M.

    Abstract: In given work are brought results of the study on study of the influences additives of clayed on physical-mechanical features of dinas refractory ramming masses on base clayed and high silica mineral raw materials resource of Republic of Uzbekistan. It Is Installed that contents added the clay of kaolin to quartzite must not exceed 25 %, but over this contents of the clay occurs the sharp reduction to porosity of the mass, in connection with formation glass fragment of pottery caking masses. Parallel porosity change and physical-mechanical characteristic of the pilot models.

    Keywords: Refractory materials, dines, raw materials, mass of ramming, compositions, quartzite, clay, granulation, porosity, toughness, fire growing or shrinkage, physical-mechanical.

    Pages: 222 – 226 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Toxicity Test on Different Brands of Food Seasonings Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Test

    Kenneth Dave B. Borja, Vhebs Terez L. Buhion and Everlita E. Canalita


    Toxicity testing is performed to assess the safety or hazards presented by substances such as consumer products, pharmaceuticals, natural products and industrial chemicals. Many of the current toxicity test methods include the use of laboratory animals such as mice, rats or rabbits, however in this study lower species of test organisms were used – the Artemia salina, which are commonly called brine shrimp.

    This study was conducted to test for the toxicity potential of three different brands of commercially sold food seasonings using brine shrimp lethality test. This is an assay that will determine the toxicity potential of a substance using the mortality rate of brine shrimp nauplii and identify the median lethal concentration (LC50) using regression line analysis .Ten (10) brine shrimp nauplii were exposed to the three different brands of commercially sold food seasonings in the Philippines with three different concentrations (10, 100, and 1000 ppm) of the test solutions. Each concentration was replicated thrice. The mortality rate of brine shrimps exposed to each brand was determined and recorded within a 24-hour period.

    Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA showed that there is no significant interaction between the brands of artificial food seasonings and their respective concentrations. It showed further that there is no significant difference in the mortality rate of brine shrimps among the three different brands of food seasonings; however, significant difference existed among the three concentrations. The highest mortality rate was observed at 1000 ppm while the lowest mortality rate was observed at 10 ppm for all brands. As the concentration increases, mortality rate of brine shrimp increases. In addition, regression line analysis showed that Brand A, Brand B, and Brand C have an LC50 of 535 ppm, 542 ppm, and 438 ppm, respectively. This implies that the substance has an ingredient that could affect the activity of brine shrimp cells.

    Keywords: Toxicity, Median Lethal Concentration (LC50), Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT).

    Pages: 227 – 233 | Full PDF Paper
  4. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Nepalese Nak Cheese

    Katawal I., Kharel G.P., Poudel B.H.

    Abstract: Nepal was the first country in Asia to make any Western-style cheeses, and until the 1980s certainly the only Asian country making nak Cheese (McGee, 2008). The aims of this work were to study the functional aspects of nak cheese produced in Nepal in respect to its antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Three nak cheeses and a cow cheese were collected randomly from regional factories of Dairy Development Corporation (DDC) in Nepal, located at altitude of 2900 m, 2600 m, 2400 m and 1900 m respectively. The cheeses were subjected to phytochemical extraction using methanol as solvent followed by quantification of the total phenol content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in their extracts. The TPC and TFC of the nak cheeses were 6.06-10.9 mg GA/g dry extract and 4.12-7.70 mg QE/g dry extract respectively which were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the cow cheese that gave the corresponding values of 2.75 mg GA/g dry extract and 1.80 mg QE/g dry extract respectively. Similarly, antioxidant activity (IC50) assayed using DPPH radicals and toxicity (LC50) determined using Brine shrimp lethality test, of the studied nak cheeses extract were 371.64-518.30 mg/L and 350.19-698.95 µg/mL (i.e., moderate toxicity) respectively. In contrast, cow cheese (1900m) gave IC50 of 626.24 mg/L, significantly lower (P<0.05) than the studied nak cheeses but its toxicity (LC50) of 376.84 µg/mL was in the range obtained for nak cheeses. Thus, nak cheese may be considered as good source of antioxidants and its regular consumption might improve consumer health due to antioxidant activity and anti-cancerous effect.

    Keywords: Functional food, Nak cheese, Phytochemicals, antioxidant, cytotoxicity.

    Pages: 234 – 245 | Full PDF Paper