1. How to Survey and Conserve one of Big Mammals in the Tropical Rain Forest of Kalimantan?

    Chandra Boer and Alber L. Manurung

    Wildlife Ecology & Biodiversity Laboratory, Forestry Faculty of Mulawarman University, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. Indonesia.

    Abstract: Normally survey in the forest is during the daytime, when es the light from the sun come in to the forest floor.  For some species is important to go through the forest in the night to make nicht survey in order to meet some activities of nocturnal species. The big sources of salt is the sea water. Around 130 mill. years ago is the sea water covered many terrestial habitat included in the tropical areas. After that some of them left within the habitat (called as Sepan) and play an important role as a key mineral for surviving many big animals in the forest. Salt is essential mineral for many big mammals, since the scarcity of salt affected the distribution and reproduction of Rhinos, Elephant, Orangutan, Bear, Deer and others. There is an idea to prepare some places for salt licking (bring salt to research location from outside), which is part of wildlife management to prosper big mammals in the region.

    Pages: 157 – 161 | Full PDF Paper
  2. Status of Horseshoe Crabs Research in Myanmar: Preliminary Field Survey in Myanmar Citizen Science Approach

    Wah Wah Min

    Lecturer, Department of Zoology, Myeik University, Myanmar, 14051.

    Abstract: The occurrence of two horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius roundicauta and Tachypleus gigas in Myeik, Tanintharyi, Rakhine and Ayeyarwady division were studied based on interview survey undertaken from January to April 2019. The objective of this study was to gather baseline data on survey interviews with fishermen to determine the abundance and distribution of Tachypleus gigas and Carcinoscorpius roundicauta in some coastal areas. During the survey, questionnaire was used to interview 30 fishermen from study sites about sightings and catches of horseshoe crabs from in-shore waters, to provide information on when and where horseshoe crabs may be found. The lower number of horseshoe crabs Carcinoscorpius roundicauta (23%) in mangrove and higher number of Tachypleus gigas (77%)in landing sites of three coastal regions. The population of horseshoe crabs is declining (30%) within 3 years (2016-2019) due to daily harvest. Tanintharyi division has 800 islands so ecotourism are more developed than other division in Myanmar and especially most of visitors were took on horseshoe crabs as food so there is no little knowledge or public awareness on horseshoe crab in Myeik environ. There is no market price so anybody won’t take as food in Dawei in Tanintharyi region, Pauk –Taw in Rakhine and Shwe-Thaung-yan in Ayeyarwady division. The present study was the preliminary interview survey to approach on citizen science of horseshoe crabs for assessing the population status of horseshoe crabs and their level of threat in other areas of Myanmar.

    Keywords: Horseshoe crab, questionnaire survey, Coastal mangrove, Public awareness, ecotourism.

    Pages: 162 – 169 | Full PDF Paper
  3. Influence of Mixing Method and Mixing Ratio of Imitation Dry Sludge Powder on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Mortar

    So Goto1, Akihiro Maegawa2, Toshitsugu Inukai3, Shogo Yamamoto3, Takashi Hirose4

    1. Graduate School of Environmental Studies Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Nagoya Univ., Aichi, Japan.
    2. Mie Prefecture Industrial Research Institute, Mie, Japan.
    3. Dept. of Architecture, National Institute of Technology, Gifu College, Gifu, Japan.
    4. Maruji Concrete Industrial Co., Ltd, Gifu, Japan.

    Abstract: This study experimentally examined how the mixing method of geopolymer mortar by the powder addition method and the aqueous solution addition method and the mixing ratio of imitation dry sludge powder affect the compressive strength of resultant geopolymer mortar. It was found that regardless of the type of fly ash, the mixing method and the addition method of Na2SiO3 had no effect on the flow value, air content, and compressive strength. While using 3.0 mol/L Na2SiO3 aqueous solution, a maximum compressive strength of approximately 35 N/mm2 was obtained at normal temperatures, when the fly ash used has a specific surface area of approximately 7000 cm2/g and the mixing ratio of imitation dry sludge powder is up to 10.0%.

    Keywords: Geopolymer, Sodium metasilicate, Mixing method, Sludge, Anhydrous citric acid, Compressive strength.

    Pages: 170 – 185 | Full PDF Paper