• The Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Fruit’s Shape and Location On Its Chemical Constituents

    Somaya Omer M. Abdoun 1, Abdelazim Yassin Abdelgadir 2, Mubarak Elsiddig Elamin 3

    1. Forests National Corporation, Khartoum, Sudan, Cell: +249 917879946.
    2. Faculty of Forestry, University of Khartoum, Shambat street, Khartoum, Sudan, Cell: +249 912552592.
    3. Industrial Research and Consultations Centre, Maowna street, Khartoum North, Sudan, Cell:+249 122118095.


    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of fruit shape and location on the chemical constituents (Sugars, saponins, protein, oil and moisture content) of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.fruit. Balanites aegyptiaca mature healthy fruits, were collected from Abu Jibeiha Province in western Sudan, and Dindir Province in eastern Sudan, in the period (2003-2005). The percentages of the fruit different parts were determined and chemical and statistical analysis (SAS) methods were carried out to obtain the percentages of sugar, saponin, protein, oil and moisture contents in the Balanites’ fruit as well as to detect the significant variation between shapes and locations.

    The study found that, there were significant differences (P> 0.05), between the four fruit shapes (oblong, elongate, spherical and oval fruits) in the studied chemical constituents across and within sites and between locations.

    The highest saponin content (4%) was obtained by oblong fruits while the highest invert sugar (40.9%) and oil content (44.9%) were obtained by oval fruits. Saponin average percentage obtained in Dindir location was double that obtained in Abu Jibeiha; the higher sugar percentage was obtained in Abu Jibeiha location.  Protein content was found to be of higher content than that reported in the literature; it ranged between 49.6 (oval fruit) and 53.8% (oblong fruit). Moisture content was not significantly different between shapes and locations of a mean 9.3%. The study concluded with that, the amounts of sugar, saponin, oil and protein, in Balanites fruit; were found in considerable percentages calling to introduce Balanites different types to the food, pharmaceutical and medicinal industries.

    Keywords: Balanites aegyptiaca, chemical constituents, saponin

    Pages: 461 – 473 | Full PDF Paper