Remote Sensing Technology for Studying the Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Environmental Change of Burullus Lake, Egypt
Hazem T. Abd El-Hamid1, 2*, Mohamed A. Hafiz3, Muhammad A. El-Alfy1, Wenlong Wang2 and Li Qiaomin2
1. Marine Pollution Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Alexandria, Egypt.
2. Ningxia Institute of Remote Sensing Surveying & Mapping, Yinchuan, China.
3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Najran University, Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Burullus Lake is one of the Nile Delta lakes and the second largest lake along the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Negative human activities play an important role in biodiversity deterioration of Burullus Lake. Remote sensing techniques were applied for assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities. Landsat data were acquired in 2001, 2013 and 2018 with radiometric and atmospheric corrections. Vegetation cover, water bodies and bare lands of Burullus Lake were calculated using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and Bare-soil index (DBSI). The study typically showed that the vegetation cover was approximately 106.89 Km2 (23.14%), 180.44 Km2 (39.06%) and 154.92 Km2 (33.53%) in 2001, 2013 and 2018, respectively. Water bodies adequately represent the largest area of Burullus Lake. Water bodies were about 288.55 Km2 (62.45%), 274.59 Km2 (59.43%) and 300.60 Km2 (65.06%) in 2001, 2013 and 2018, respectively. Bare-soil of Burullus Lake affects adversely on the biodiversity. Bare lands were typically about 66.55 Km2, (14.4%) 6.98 Km2 (1.51%) and 6.48 Km2 (1.40%) in 2001, 2013 and 2018, respectively. The amount of drying decreased from 2001 to 2018. The effective percent of drying is about 10.4%, 7.2% and 3.9 % from 2001 to 2013, 2001 to 2018 and from 2013 to 2018, respectively. Chlorophyll as an indicator of eutrophication is studied using Landsat images and accurately showed high reflectance in the year of 2013 and 2018 as a possible indication for increasing tremendously the discharge of wastes especially from agricultural and fish farm sources. But more management was observed in various sites in the year of 2018. The results will carefully help the decision-makers to take aback the necessary procedures to typically reduce the environmental risk and maintain the lake to sustain the lake water area against further drying and negative human activities.
Keywords: Burullus Lake, Remote sensing, NDVI, NDWI, Anthropogenic, Chlorophyll.
Pages: 269 – 285 | Full PDF Paper