• Endemic Flora and Fauna of Georgia, Biodiversity, Peculiarities and Ecology

    Vazha Todua

    Botanic-Zoology Department, Sokhumi State University, 9 Politkovskaya Str., 0186, Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Abstract: Present document summarizes the research of Georgian endemic flora and fauna through morphological, biological and ecological methods. The purpose of the research was to discover more about the diversity of endemic plants (mostly vine and wheat), animals and birds in Georgia and the ecological conditions thereof. The document briefly discusses the location of Georgia, its nature, culture, as well as indigenous people living in Georgia about 15000 years ago and the existence of their ancestors presumably inhabiting this area about 1.8 million years ago. The research mainly focuses on wheat (Triticum) species, including the description of endemic relicts: Triticumaestivum, T. paleo-colchicum Menabde, T. Timopheevi Zhuk, T. carthlicum Nevsky, T. Zhykovski, T. Zanduri. All six species are widely spread in one of the regions of Georgia – Racha-Lechkhumi. In Herewith, Georgia has registered presence of 14 species of wheat of the 25 that can be found worldwide. In addition, Georgia is also known as the country with rich variety of vine species. There are 4000 species of vine in the world and 530 of them originate from Georgia. From mentioned species more than 437 have been preserved and “Usakhelauri” is considered to be the oldest one of them. Other vine species cultivated in Georgia include, but are not limited to Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Kakhuri, Sapheravi, Tsolikauri, Dzveli SHavi, Ojaleshi, Chkhaveri, etc. The present document also describes the most prominent endemic species of coniferous and flowering plants in Georgia, which are divided into 17 genera (Pinus pithyusa, Reldarica, Betulamegrelica, Georgian elm Ulnus georgica Schachiak, Pyrus Demetrii Kutath, Corylus colchica Albov, Heracleum SommieriManden, Dioscorea Caucasica Lipsky, and others; from Campanulas – C.Draaki, C. Dzyschrica, C. Engurensis, C. Mirabilis). Georgia has 67 species of Campanulas out of the total 110 known to the world. In birds – Tetraogallus Caspius Gmelin, Lyarurus Mlocosieviczi Taexanowski; in reptiles – Mertensiella Caneasica (waga) and etc. are described with the indication of relevant areas, information about their conditions and the terms for preserving them.

    Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Endemic, Vine, Wheat, Bird, Animal, Reptile

    Pages: 108 – 120 | Full PDF Paper