The Impact of Air Pollution on the Occurrence of Bioindicator Rhytisma Acerinum L. and Its Potential Use in the Production of Biomass
Grammar school of St. Nicholas , Duklianska 16, 080 01, Prešov, Slovakia.
Abstract: The aim of our project was to find the association between the intensity of bioindication demonstrations of Rhytisma acerinum L. (size and number of spots) and selected meteorological factors (precipitation, SOx), compare the content of selected biogenic elements in the leaves and soil of affected seedlings of Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. In 2014 and 2015 we recorded 100 % infection rate in both species of maple in the mountains of Bukovské mountains and Slánske mountains. The major manifestation of the bioindication of fungi was recorded in the highest areas (protected areas). We observed differences in infection of the monitored species of maples: Acer pseudoplatanus L. had a greater number of smaller spots compared to Acer platanoides L. In 2014 with more precipitation the number of spots was higher (Bukovské mountains by 27,62 % more and Slanské mountains by 30,11 %), the size of spots was also larger than in 2015 (Bukovské mountains by 8,34 % and Slanské mountains by 52,31 %). In the experimental stage we found out that the more intense pH of the watering solution, the higher number and size of spots. The largest number and size of spots were recorded on the seedlings watered with the solutions of pH from 6,00 – 7,60 and on seedlings growing in the forest. The content of nitrogen increased with a decreasing pH, higher contents of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen were recorded in the maples remarkably infected with the fungus, the presence of sulfur was recorded only in the leaves of Acer platanoides L. (more sensitive to SOx). The highest content of calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus was recorded in the soil under the maple trees intensely affected by Rhytisma acerinum L. After evaluating the calorific value and gross combustion heat we did not record any significant differences in the production of maple biomass. We propose to use the monitoring of occurrence of Rhytisma acerinum L. bioindicator as a suitable method for detection of air pollution caused by sulphur pollutants. The results are as well significant for the finding about faster defoliation of maple leaves which causes more rapid humification of soil, which in the replanting process of trees results in a less serious land degradation.
Keywords: Rhytisma acerinum L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Acer platanoides L., bioindicator, SOx, air pollution, acid rain.
Pages: 14 – 42 | Full PDF Paper